Is Christian proselytizing
linked to religious hate crimes?
Excerpts from The Chicago Declaration on Religious Freedom: Sharing
Jesus Christ in a Pluralistic Society.'
|"Only a society that permits free discourse within the
robust marketplace of ideas envisioned by America's founders can
safeguard the true liberty, freedom, and human dignity we all pursue.
Misguided or false notions of pluralism must not be allowed to
jeopardize anyone's constitutional right to evangelize or promote
one's faith." 6|
|"We pledge to defend the rights of others to hold their own
religious convictions, to challenge our beliefs, and to attract
converts to their religious faiths."|
Types of religious proselytizing:
Religious proselytizing is the act of attempting to convert another person to
your own religion. As long as it neither involves verbal harassment nor creates a
disturbance, it is a protected form of speech under the First
Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Proselytizing can take many forms:
|At one extreme, the follower of one faith may simply share their religious
beliefs with another person of a different religion. A dialog may develop in
which the follower of both religions -- as equals -- discuss their beliefs.
One goal is increased awareness of religious differences and similarities
between the two faiths. Another is the hope by at least one person that the
other will convert to their faith.|
|At another extreme, the follower of one faith approaches the other from a position
of superiority. She/he assertively presents theirs as the only
true religion. Other faiths, including the religion of the listener, may
be described as inferior, filled with errors, or even Satan-inspired. The
proselytizer might state that the other will spend eternity being tortured
in Hell unless they convert to the proselytizer's
The former approach involves genuine bi-directional communication. It should
lead to a greater understanding of both religions, and may increase the level of
religious tolerance in the community. In the second approach, the proselytizer
has a perceived position of superiority. He/she lacks respect for the other
person's religion. The exchange can be expected to sometimes generate ill feeling,
animosity, and conceivably even violence.
Friction developed between the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) and a
local, inter-faith council in Chicago, IL. The SBC planned to send 100,000
volunteers to the city in the summer of the year 2000 to evangelize the unsaved
population. The council expressed concern that the SBC style of proselytizing
might exacerbate religious tension in the city and lead to violence. Each side
has charged the other with religious intolerance. The Americans
United for Separation of Church and State agency became involved, viewing
the problem from a civil rights perspective. They acknowledged that SBC's style
of evangelism offends many people, but emphasized that the volunteers have a
constitutional right to try to convert people to their religion.
Southern Baptist evangelist effort in Chicago:
According to Newsroom on
Southern Baptists planned to launch a "major evangelism effort in Chicago"
during the summer of 2000. "The Council of Religious Leaders of
Metropolitan Chicago wrote a letter in November to Paige Patterson,
president of the Southern Baptist Convention, asking that the largest
Protestant denomination in the U.S. not send thousands of missionaries to
Chicago for fear they would create a climate conducive to hate crimes."
The Southern Baptists point out that "Neither spokesmen for the
Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago and Council of Religious Leaders, nor
organizations and agencies that track hate crimes cite any studies linking
them with evangelism."
"However, the implicit suggestion in Southern
Baptist prayer guides is that 'others, including Christians, who do
not practice the Christian faith as they do are not as Christian,'
contended United Methodist Bishop C. Joseph Sprague, a member of the
inter-faith council. 'That is insulting to us and conducive to real hurt.'
With the recent defamation of synagogues and deaths attributed to hate
crimes in the Chicago area, the bishop said, 'it's no stretch to look
back at history and see cause and effect.' "
"Sprague said the incident reflects the theological divide between
Christians about evangelism. Evangelical Christians, like Southern
Baptists, believe that salvation comes only by accepting Jesus Christ as
savior. Others consider Christ as the decisive revelation and that
believers witness their faith by living life 'with Jesus Christ as savior,
living and proclaiming the good news of Jesus Christ.' It is clear as the
Southern Baptist leadership has communicated that they have a hold on
truth, and others who do not agree are outside the fold of salvation,' the
bishop said. 'That is offensive and theologically suspect...This raises
deep historic wounds, particularly in the Jewish community. It is
important for us as Christians to remember that this is still the century
of the Holocaust.' "
"[Rob] Boston [spokesperson] of Americans United for Separation of
Church and State said he is aware that conversion activities of Southern
Baptists offend many people, 'but they have every right to do it. It would
be unfortunate if we got to a point where folks wanting to spread their
message could not do that. ? The First Amendment gives the right to hold
unpopular opinions and the right to spread them. The appropriate response
is not to ask them not to come, but to shut the door' when they come to
ReligionToday on 2000-JUN-9:
The numbers of volunteers for the SBC evangelistic conversion of Chicago has
fallen behind expectations. 100,000 volunteers were expected, but only 1,200 out
of town volunteers had signed up by early June. The Chicago Metropolitan
Baptist Association planned to cancel 6,000 hotel reservations. However,
evangelicals from 170 conservative churches in the Chicago area became
involved in a range of activities that summer.
The Chicago Declaration on Religious Freedom:
As described by ReligionToday: 3,4
"Stung by assertions that preaching can lead to hate crimes, some of the country's most prominent Christian leaders are reasserting
the constitutional right to evangelize. Eighty-four scholars,
theologians, and church leaders last week endorsed a document
called 'The Chicago Declaration on Religious Freedom: Sharing
Jesus Christ in a Pluralistic Society.' They include Charles
Colson of Prison Fellowship, theologians Carl F. H. Henry, J.I.
Packer, R.C. Sproul, and Franklin Graham, son of evangelist Billy
The leaders rejected the notion that evangelism undermines 'a
peaceful, pluralistic society and may lead to intolerance,
bigotry, and even violence,' but said that only a society that
permits free discourse 'can safeguard the true liberty, freedom,
and human dignity we all pursue.' 6
The declaration also 'acknowledges with shame that some Christian churches have failed to exercise proper respect for the
rights and dignity of others,' and rejects the use of 'coercive techniques, dishonest appeals, or any form of
Southern Baptists last year announced a plan to evangelize Chicago this summer. An interfaith coalition asked the
denomination to reconsider the campaign, fearing that it might lead to violence against Jews, Hindus, and Muslims.
That was 'the straw that broke the camel's back,' Richard Land, president of the Southern Baptist Ethics & Religious
Liberty Commission, told the Dallas Morning News. Saying that evangelism leads to hate crimes is nonsense, he said.
'The declaration puts our critics on notice that they're going to have to defend what appears to a lot of Americans to be intolerance.' "
As described by Newsroom:
Robert Coleman is the director of the School of World Mission and
Evangelism at Trinity International University, He said that
the Chicago Declaration grew out of efforts to resolve the SBC/Council
conflict, but added that "the document has a larger mission...It
reflects an attitude that all of us have in a strong evangelical faith and
a desire to present the gospel freely...We are not singling out any
groups, like Jews, but we want everyone without regard to race or
religious faith to hear the gospel." With an apparent reference
to the conflict in society between absolute and
relative truth, he added that "There is a climate, a whole
culture that is so pluralistic that almost anyone who has a strong
conviction is considered a bigot...6 Those of us who are evangelicals, who
believe that, in real truth, there is a word that is clear, a word that is
absolute -- that is naturally going to evoke some criticism from those who
think everything is up for grabs."
As supported by the Southern Baptist Convention:
At their 2000-JUN-13/14 convention in Orlando, FL, the Convention
asserted their right to evangelize. The messengers (delegates) passed
Resolution 2, which said, in part:
|Therefore, be it RESOLVED, That the messengers to the Southern
Baptist Convention, meeting in Orlando, Florida, June 13-14, 2000,
commit afresh to personal evangelism; and|
|Be it further RESOLVED, That we affirm our God-given and
constitutionally-protected right to make Christ known in a pluralistic
|Be it further RESOLVED, That the proclamation of the Gospel of
Christ is a reflection of our love for both God and neighbor; and|
|Be it further RESOLVED, That out of respect for the value, dignity,
and human rights of all people, we abhor the use of coercive techniques,
dishonest appeals, or any form of deception in evangelistic outreach;
|Be it finally RESOLVED, That if our culture or even our government
were to forbid us to proclaim the gospel, "We must obey God rather than
men" (Acts 5:29). 7|
Note: We have not been able to find any other references (or the
document text) related to the Chicago Declaration on the Internet.
Related essays on this site:
- Lead article, Newsroom, 2000-JAN-5.
- Newsroom is a service of Worldwide Newsroom Inc. Their
articles are written by "a network of journalists, scholars and
other professional contacts in country." You can subscribe to their
free service from their website at http://www.newsroom.org/
- Current news summary, Religion Today, 2000-JUN-6. See: http://www.religiontoday.com/Archive/NewsSummary/
- Religion Today offers a free daily religious news service at: www.ReligionToday.com.
- "U.S. evangelicals assert right to evangelize," Newsroom,
2000-JUN-9. Article 1612.
- The term "pluralism" is ambiguous.
It is sometimes used to refer to religious diversity. Other times, it refers
to the belief that all religions are true. It appears to have been used in
both senses in various quotations in this essay.
- "Resolution No. 2," Southern Baptist Convention, 2000-JUN-13/14,
Portions copyrighted © 2000 to 2009 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally written: 2000-JUN-12
Latest update: 2009-NOV-09
Author: B.A. Robinson