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Satan, a.k.a. the Devil:
Beliefs about Satan by liberal & conservative
Protestants, and Catholics.
Beliefs by the general U.S. public:
A YouGov survey in 2013 found that, among U.S. adults:
57% believe in the existence of the Devil; 28% do not; 15% don't know or refuse to answer. 16
72% of African Americans, 51% of women, 65% of Republicans, and 55% of Democrats believe in the existence of Satan. 17
80% of Christians, 25% of Muslims and 17% of Jews in the U.S. believe in the existence of Satan. 17
51% believe in possession by the devil or some other evil spirit; 28% don't believe' 20% don't know or refuse to answer. 16
6% believe that people are possessed by the devil very frequently; 9% frequently, 29% occasionally, 45% rarely, and 11% never. 16
46% believe in the power of exorcism to drive the Devil or evil spirits out of a person. 19% don't believe; 36% don't know or refuse to answer. 16
According to one Baptist source:
"Religious liberals do not believe in the
literal reality and actual personality of Satan...The devil or Satan is not at all a real
person, but only an impersonal evil force, present and operating in the world." 6
The same source estimates that 75% of American clergy hold this belief.
Many liberal religious faith groups believe that Satan and demons do not exist as
living entities. This contrasts with Jesus, his disciples and the general public during the time of Christ's
ministry. They clearly believed in Satan and in the presence of armies of demons. However, they lived in a
pre-scientific age. People in 1st century CE Palestine used the concept of demonic possession
to account for mental illness, bad weather, lightning, thunder, unfortunate accidents,
dreams of nocturnal seduction, etc. These beliefs continued through the Middle Ages in to
the Renaissance. However, medical, mental and physical sciences have provided better and
simpler explanations to phenomena once believed to be caused by demons.
Today, with the
exception of some fundamentalist and other evangelical Christians, very few mental health
professionals attribute mental illness to indwelling demons. Most would regard the concepts of Satan, demons, spiritual warfare, demon
possession, etc. as being totally divorced from reality -- a left-over belief from a
pre-scientific era. Three quotations reflecting this liberal interpretation of
By Author Gerald Messadié:
"We live under the sign of a nonexistent deity cobbled together twenty-six
centuries ago by power-hungry Iranian priests. We live under the sign of Satan. Is this
our destiny - are we to let an imaginary monster devour us forever?" 7
By John Shelby Spong, retired bishop off the Episcopal Church (TED) in the United States:
"Evil is real, but an external being who causes it is a human
projection of part of our own reality into the external world of being.
The devil is an excuse, someone to blame, part of the system of control
that religious institutions set up to keep themselves dominant."
"Belief in an external devil has done more harm than we can imagine.
Executing the witches of Salem, Massachusetts, is only one of them."
"It is time for the human race to grow up and let go of these childish
- By Phil Zuckerman: "
"How can people seriously believe in the devil? The year is 2015, not 1315. And yet, the fact remains that tens of millions of Americans continue to believe that there is a magical, wicked, evil -- oh, and smart -- being out there doing magical, wicked, evil deeds and presiding over a fiery realm, where demons crawl and witches cackle. Oh, wait. No cackling witches. Just demons, right?. ..."
"But there is no such thing as the devil, just as there is no such thing as fairies, imps, or goblins. The two largest religions in the world — Christianity and Islam — teach that there is a devil. And they are wrong. There is no evidence for such a thing. Not a shred. It is simply something that germinated from the unscientific, irrational minds of early humans who tried their best to explain why bad things happen to good people, why good people sometimes do bad things, and why there is so much needless suffering in the world." 15
Most conservative denominations teach that God
inspired the authors of the Old and New Testaments to write material that is inerrant
-- free of error.
They view the Bible as completely free of error, as originally
written. Since they believe that the Bible is totally truthful and reliable, then they are forced to
conclude from the many references to Satan as a person that he must exist. If they deny the existence
of Satan and his demons as real, living entities, then they have to also deny the
inerrancy of the Bible. The latter is such a foundational belief, that it cannot be
Conservative Christian beliefs appear to dominate the Internet. A search phrase "exist
satan" on the AltaVista
search engine showed that all of the first 12 articles were written
from a conservative Christian perspective. According to the same Baptist source cited
"Any system of religious belief that denies the literal reality and
actual personality of Satan is radically unChristian and unBiblical in nature and clearly
under the dominion of the very devil whom it denies." 6
Fundamentalist and other Evangelical denominations teach that Satan:
||Is as a real, living entity.
||Is described in many locations of Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, with the same
powers, abilities and personality throughout.
||Was once an archangel. ("archos" means "chief", and
"angelos" means "messenger" in Greek).
||Was "Lucifer, the first and most glorious creation of God."7
||Staged a revolt in heaven with the help of some renegade angels.
||Is now exiled from heaven with his followers.
||Roams across the earth doing evil.
||Is supported by countless demons. Although the origin of these demons is not clearly
defined in the Bible, most conservative Christians believe that demons are the fallen
angels who were exiled from heaven with Satan.
Is either the leader of, or a major influence on, all non-Judeo-Christian religions. One
Fundamentalist writer believes that:
"The great ethnic faiths of India, China and
Japan major in demonism, as well as the animistic religions of Africa, South America and
some Islands." 8
Some look upon Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Native American spirituality,
etc as forms of Satanism. The Gods and Goddesses of other religions are often seen as
Satan himself, or as demons under the control of Satan.
Harvest Ministries has an excellent, clearly written essay on Satan, as seen from an
Evangelical Christian perspective. 9
The conservative Christian position is well represented by a quotation from the
writings of Richard Lee and Ed. Hindson: 10
"Today people are experimenting with astrology, witchcraft,
Ouija boards, divination, channeling, Tarot cards, fortune-tellers,
mediums, crystals and shamans. Mankind has come to the final conclusion of disbelief
in God and has turned to belief in the very opposite! Satan has cleverly convinced the
modern mind that he is not to be taken seriously until all other spiritual options are
exhausted. Then, when empty souls turn to him in desperation, he can take them over
completely and totally.
C.S. Lewis wrote in 'The Screwtape Letters:'
'There are two equal and opposite
errors into which our race can fall about the devils. One is to disbelieve in their
existence. The other is to believe, and to feel an excessive and unhealthy interest in
them. They themselves are equally pleased by both errors'."
During 2013-OCT, the late Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia stated that he believed in the existence of Satan. He said:
"In the Gospels, the Devil is doing all sorts of things. He’s making pigs run off cliffs, he’s possessing people and what not. And that doesn’t happen very much anymore…It’s because he’s smart ... What he’s doing now is getting people not to believe in him or in God. He’s much more successful that way."
The Roman Catholic Church has long held beliefs concerning the
nature of Satan which are similar to those of conservative Protestants. He is seen as a supernatural entity who has great powers. He has been referred to as the Accursed Dragon, Evil One, Foul Spirit,
Master of Deceit, Prince of Darkness, Satanic Power, etc.12
and his demons had been frequently held responsible for demonic possession.
A demon or Satan
himself was seen to dwell within a person and control their activity. The church has
recently taken the first
steps towards overhauling its vision of Satanic possession to more closely match the liberal concept.
Satan is no longer a seen as attacking people and attempting to possess them
from outside. Rather, most cases of possession are seen as caused by a force "lurking
within all individuals." Such cases are best treated by mental health
professionals. However, the church is not revising "scriptural references to the Devil or
suggesting that people cease believing in the Evil One" at this time. So,
belief in Satan continues, even though his involvement in mental illness and demonic
possession is being downgraded.
The Pope discussed Satan during one of his Wednesday meetings with the
faithful on 1999-AUG-18. He explained how Satan was absolutely vanquished by
Christ. However, Satan is still present today attempting to seduce individuals
into committing wrongful acts. Father S. De Fiores subsequently discussed Satan
on Vatican Radio. He discussed the concept of "diabolic circles"
which are concentrations of evil in the world. He linked this evil to Atheism,
the quest for power, and the presence of Satan. The results are "gulags,
Auschwitz, [and] the ethnic cleansing of our time." He continued:
"Satan camouflages himself, trying to make good seem evil and vice
During early 2004, many residents of Canneto di Caronia, a small village
of about 40 homes near Messina in Sicily, became convinced that their
electrical appliances and furniture have become possessed by demons.
Spontaneous fires had broken out in refrigerators, television sets, washing
machines, and cell phones. Mayor Pedro Spinnato is reported as saying:
cannot risk a tragedy through these fires, so I have no other option but to
evacuate the village. We have had electrical engineers in to examine cables
and wires but they can find no explanation. It is not just electrical items,
furniture is also catching fire for no reason. Already people are blaming
the events on evil spirits and I am being asked to get the local priest to
perform an exorcism."
Spinnato ordered an evacuation of the village.
Vatican exorcist Gabriele Amorth told the Italian newspaper Il Messagero:
"I've seen things like this before. Demons occupy a house and appear in
electrical goods. ... Let's not forget that Satan and his followers have
He told the Scotsman:
"With cases of demon behavior,
it is normal for domestic appliances to be involved and for demons [to] make
their presence known via electricity."
During an interview on 2017-MAY-31, the new head of the Jesuit order, Superior General Fr. Arturo Sosa Abascal, said that Satan is a symbolic figure:
"... who doesn’t really exist. We have created symbolic figures, such as the devil, in order to express [the reality of] evil. ... Social conditioning also represents that figure."
This conflicts with the Catechism of the Catholic Church which states:
"The Church teaches that Satan was at first a good angel, made by God: ‘The devil and the other demons were indeed created naturally good by God, but they became evil by their own doing'. ... Scripture speaks of a sin of these angels. This ‘fall’ consists in the free choice of these created spirits, who radically and irrevocably rejected God and his reign."
Jesus appears to have believed in Satan and demonic possession. In Mark. 5:9, and Matthew 8:28-34, he cast out numerous demons. Jesus also told his disciples (Luke. 10:18) that he saw 'Satan fall like lightning from heaven'."
G. Barna, "The Index of Leading Spiritual Indicators," Word
Publishing, Dallas TX (1996), Page 22.
George Barna, "What Americans Believe.", Regal Books, Ventura CA
(1991), Page 206
Gustav Niebuhr, "Poll Indicates Diminished Role of Devil", N.Y. Times
News Service, 1997-MAY-10, at:
J. F. Cogan, "Handbook about Demon Possession For Human Service Workers"
"Religious beliefs vary widely by denomination," 2001-JUN-25, Barna Research Group, Ltd., at:
"Does Satan Really Exist?," Our Baptist Heritage, 1993-MAR/APR. Text
G. Messandé, Gerald Messadié, "A History of the Devil," Kodansha USA; Reprint edition (1997) Page 328. Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store
M.F. Unger, "Demons in the World Today," Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,
(1971), Page 8
Greg Laurie, "Foundations for Living: Who is the Devil?" at: http://www.harvest.org/
R. Lee & Ed. Hindson, "Angels of Deceit," Harvest House, Eugene,
OR, (1993), Page 118
C.S. Lewis, "The Screwtape Letters," MacMillan, New York, NY, (1961),
Richard Owen, "Satan gets a facelift," The Australian, 1999-JAN-26
"Vatican exorcist: Devil is in the electricity. 'Let's not forget
that Satan and his followers have immense powers'," WorldNetDaily,
- Bishop Spong, "Do You Believe in the Devil?," Q and A newsletter,
Phil Zuckerman, "The Devil? Seriously?," Psychology Today, 2015-SEP-28, at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/
"Poll Results: Exorcism," YouGov, 2013-SEP-17, at: https://today.yougov.com/
"Paul Bedard, "57% believe in the devil, 72% for blacks, 61% for women," Washington Examiner, 2013-SEP-19, at: https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/
Copyright © 1998 to 2018 by Ontario
Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update: 2018-OCT-14
Author: B.A. Robinson