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Early 2017: Climate change concerns continue:

Part 17: Studies of the Effects
of Sea-level Rise in California:
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This topic is continued from the previous essay

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The Earth is ours to protect

The Earth is ours to protect. 1

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A valuable web site for scientific information on climate:

You might visit the Climate Central web site at

Their mission is to:

"Communicate the science and effects of climate change to the public and decision-makers."

They describe themselves as:

"An independent organization of leading scientists and journalists researching and reporting the facts about our changing climate and its impact on the public."

They survey and conduct:

"... scientific research on climate change and inform ... the public of key findings. ... [Their] scientists publish and ... journalists report on climate science, energy, sea level rise, wildfires, drought, and related topics. Climate Central is not an advocacy organization. ... Climate Central is a qualified 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization.

Of particular interest are their "Risk Zone Maps" sections. You can specify a costal state, county or city and show what areas and groups among the population are at risk for future flooding because of low land elevation coupled with the rise in sea levels.

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2009 to 2015: Studies of the effect of sea-level rise in California:

There have been a few troubling reports issued during the past decade about sea-level rise and its impact on the coast of California:

  • 2009-MAR: A report titled: "The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast" by the Pacific Institute concluded that:

    "Over the past century, mean sea level has risen nearly eight inches at the Golden Gate in San Francisco according to NOAA oceanographers, and under a medium-to-medium-high greenhouse-gas emissions scenario, mean sea level is projected to rise from 1.0 to 1.4 meters ... [3.3 to 4.6 feet; 40 to 55 inches] by the year 2100." 2

    They predicted that:

  • "... 480,000 people; a wide range of critical infrastructure, such as roads, hospitals, schools, and emergency facilities; vast areas of wetlands and other natural ecosystems; and nearly $100 billion in property along the California coast are at increased risk from flooding from a 1.4-meter sea-level rise -- if no adaptation actions are taken." 2

  • 2014-JUL: A report titled: "The Impacts of Sea Level rise on the San Francisco Bay" was prepared by the Pacific Institute for the California Energy Commission. It concentrated on the shoreline of the San Francisco Bay, and concluded that a 1 meter (3.3 foot) rise in sea level would:

    "... put 220,000 people at risk of a 100‐year flood event, given today’s population. ... Among those affected are large numbers of low‐income people and communities of color, which are especially vulnerable. Critical infrastructure, such as roads, hospitals, schools, emergency facilities, wastewater treatment plants, power plants, and more will be at increased risk of inundation, as will vast areas of wetlands and other natural ecosystems. In addition, the cost of replacing property at risk of coastal flooding with a 1.0 meters [3.3 foot] rise in sea levels is $49 billion (in year 2000 dollars)." 3

  • 2014-AUG: A report titled "Sea-Level Rise: a Slow-Moving Emergency," was prepared by the California Assembly’s Select Committee on Sea Level Rise and the California Economy. The report noted that California has 840 miles of coastline. Three quarters of the state's 38 million population live near the coastline, including the San Francisco Bay shoreline. They concluded that:

    "California’s coastal agriculture, fishing, and tourist industries will be impacted. Airports, ports, and goods movement will be affected. ... [as will] 3,500 miles of roadways; about 280 miles of railroads; numerous schools, police and fire stations; and hospitals. ... Key elements of California’s wastewater treatment capacity and power generating capacity are located at current sea level."

    Also, salt water intrusion ... poses a high level of risk to agricultural communities. Water supply and quality will be threatened. Costal sea-level rise will accelerate costal and beach erosion. 4

  • 2015-NOV: a report titled: "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Efforts in California" was issued by the State Senate's Committee on Environmental Quality." The authors' noted that:

    "According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, every 2°F [1.1 °C] increase in global average temperature is expected to result in 5-15% reductions in crop yields, 3-10% increases in rainfall during heavy precipitation events, and 200-400% increases in areas burned by wildfires in the western U.S. In California, higher temperatures and more extreme events, including heat waves, wildfires, floods, and droughts, will have a range of consequences for public health, air and water quality, infrastructure, agriculture, natural resources, safety and security, and the economy." 5

    The report mainly concentrated on "impacts to environmental quality and public health" from climate change. But they touched on sea-rise concerns, predicting that:

    "With current projections, rising seas combined with a 100-year flood event would [intermittently] close over 2,000 miles of roadway, the Oakland and San Francisco airports, and the Port of Oakland. ... In coastal areas, rising sea levels can lead to increased salinity in coastal aquifers. Higher salinity of water has reduced usability for both drinking water and agricultural purposes, and desalination procedures are energy-intensive and costly." 5

2017-APR-26: New data indicates that the sea level rise in California may be much greater and will have much more impact than was indicated by prior reports:

By 2017, measurements had indicated that the melting of ice in the Antarctica is accelerating. Previous estimates of sea-level rises of up to 1.4 meters (4.6 feet) by the end of the 21st century now are believed to be unrealistically low.

A report by Anne C. Mulkern in E & E News by Scientific American states that:

"... ice loss causes higher sea-level rise in California, it said, due to how the Earth rotates and gravitational pull on the waters. If the ice melt is from West Antarctica, impacts extend further.

"For California, there is no worse place for land ice to be lost than from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet,” the study said. “For every foot of global sea-level rise caused by the loss of ice on West Antarctica, sea-level will rise approximately 1.25 feet along the California coast. ..."

[by the end of the 21st Century] San Francisco under the lowest estimate, the sea would rise 1 foot. It could climb as much as 6.9 feet. In La Jolla, the ocean would lift 1.1 feet under the lowest estimate or as much as 7.1 feet. Crescent City faces a range of 1.2 inches under the lowest estimate to as much as 5.9 feet." 6,7

Some climate specialists are predicting that the sea levels will rise along California's Pacific shore by up to 3 meters (10 feet) by the end of the 21st century. A report was commissioned by the state and presented to the Ocean Protection Council for adoption. The report warns that if our present trends continue, then the rate of rise in sea level in this century will be 30 to 40 times that of the 20th century. 8,9

Some of the predictions are that "... the worst case, will be reality by the end of this century:"

  • San Francisco and Oakland international airports will be unusable because of the probability of frequent flooding.

  • "Power plants, nuclear waste sites and other sensitive waterside sites need to be fortified or lost."

  • "More than 42,000 homes in California will be under water -- not merely flooded, but with seawater over [their] roofs."

California Assemblyman Mark Stone (D) chairman of the Select Committee on Coastal Protection and Access to Natural Resources said:

"We’re not doing well at all. We have yet to really start to answer the hard questions and make policy -- saying, ‘No, we are not going to put public money here.’

Eventually we should get to the point that we are not going to do any public investment in those places any more."

Patzert, a climatologist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said:

"It’s not an existential threat. It’s real. It’s gonna happen.

Here’s the bigger issue: If you’re in the tunnel and you see the train coming at you, what do you do? Do you race towards it or do you back out? It’s just common sense. As a society, why aren’t we doing that?"

The consensus of climate scientists is that the cause of the sea level rise is global warming which is causing the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to melt at an accelerating rate:

  • The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets contain more than 99% of the total freshwater ice on Earth.

  • The Antarctic ice sheet covers almost 14 million square kilometers (5.4 million square miles) which is similar to the total area of the contiguous U.S. mainland and Mexico combined.

  • The Greenland ice sheet covers 1.7 million square kilometers (0.66 million square miles) which is three times the size of Texas.

  • If both ice sheets were to melt completely, then the sea level would rise about 66 meters (220 feet).

Melting of only a small percentage of both ice sheets would produce major catastrophes to all costal areas and in particular the State of Florida where the average level of land is only 50 feet (15 meters) above current sea level. 10

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2017-MAY-27-29: Record "King Tides" in Honolulu, HI:

The term "King Tide" refers to the highest ocean tide of the year at a given location. During April, the recent El Niño, the summer-time warming of the ocean, long term sea level rise, and a high swell combined to produce a king tide that exceeded a 112 year-old-record in Honolulu. Tides during June and July were expected to exceed April's record.

Hilton Hawaiian Village in Waikīkī canceled its Friday night fireworks show over Memorial Day Weekend (May 27-29) for safety reasons.

Mark Merrifield, an oceanography professor at the University of Hawai‘i said:

"These nuisance flooding events will come and go depending on ocean conditions but they will steadily become more and more frequent -- not just the king tide but a large fraction of all high tides [will] start to reach flood levels with rising sea levels."

John J. Marra, NOAA’s Regional Climate Services Director, said:

"The tides are also being elevated a very small amount over time by rising sea levels associated with global warming, so, at some point in the future (20 to 30 years), what you are seeing now as a result of the anomaly will eventually be what you see all the time at high tide." 11

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This topic continues in the next essay.

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The following essays on the environment and climate change may be of interest to you:

  • Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.

  • Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.

  • Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.

  • Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.

  • Part 5: 2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species. Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.

  • Part 6: 2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."

  • Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Con't). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.

  • Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth

  • Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.

  • Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.

  • Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.

  • Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 Promised Plans on Energy and the Environment.

  • Part 13: 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.

  • Part 14: star 2017-JAN: Recent Climate Change Measurements!

  • Part 15:2017-JAN to APR: Climate Change Debate is Changing. What if All the Earth's Glaciers Melted?

  • Part 16: 2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Colombia. Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere Reaches New High.

  • Part 18: President Trump Decided that the U.S. Will Quit the Paris Agreement. Explosive Reactions to his Plan, nationally and globally.

  • Part 19: More Reactions to the U.S. Withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Record high temperatures in San Francisco and elsewhere.

  • Part 20:2017-AUG/SEP : Group of 20 summit meeting, Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas. Is climate change increasing the severity or frequency of hurricanes?

  • Part 21: 2017-SEP: 2017-SEP: Can government regulations help? U.S. record high temperatures. Did God send Hurricane Harvey to attack TX?. Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, GA. Hurricanes Jose & Maria.

  • Part 22: 2017-SEP/OCT: The most expensive recent hurricanes to attack the United States. Does God use Hurricanes to send a message? Conflicts, climate change cause rise in hunger.

  • Part 23: 2017-OCT to 2017-DEC: All UN states have signed the Paris Agreement. Government report contradicts the President. Comment by the Union of Concerned Scientists.

  • Part 24: 2018-JAN to MAY: New temperature records. President signs bill increasing research."Onion's" amusing fake news. Sea levels rising; cities under water. Climate change beliefs as function of age. Proposed Mount Trumpmore project. Volcano in Hawaii. How global warming is affecting California. Animal, Insect, & Bird Ranges Shrink. Nutrients in rice reduced. California Governor's comments.

  • Part 25: 2018-JUN & JUL: During 2018-JUN: A very few encouraging signs. Hurricanes slowing as winds increase. Changes in Antarctic ice and environment. Norway's growing season increased. A new world highest temperature. Future ocean levels.

  • Part 26: 2018-JUL: New York City reports to the UN. Impacts of humans burning up all our fossil energy. WWW.CLIMATECENTRAL.ORG's tools.
    Death Valley, CA, sets new record. Dissapearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern lands. Hurricane Florence.

  • Part 27: 2018-AUG & SEP: Dissapearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern countries. Hurricane Florence attacks the Carolinas. Pat Robinson's "Shield of Protection" doesn't work.

  • Part 28: 2018-SEP & OCT: Trump Admin. predicts: 7ºF temperature rise by the year 2099. Impact of climate change on women. Green Building Week & commitment. New IPCC report predicts a "Strong Risk of Crisis as early as 2040.

  • Part 29: 2018-OCT & NOV: Southern Baptist Convention downplays IPCC Report. Climate changing Fall season. Ozone layer continues to heal.
    Trump Confuses Weather & Climate.

  • Part 30: 2018-NOV: Hope for people who have no access to clean water. Trump Administration releases National Climate Assessment report. Reactions to the report.

  • Part 31: 2018-DEC: How to lie about climate change. UN head repeats warning. Major report on Arctic climate. Greenhouse gases soar. Can climate scientists be trusted?

  • Part 32: 2019-JAN: Collecting plastic trash from the Pacific Ocean. U.S. Public opinion on the environment. Status of climate change at the start of 2019.

  • Part 33: 2019-JAN-MAR: If Ocean Cleanup fails.... Public opinion on environment. Climate change in early 2019. Sea rise from Antarctic melting. Denmark fights cow flatulence. Disconnect between the EPA and climate scientists. Change is urgent NOW!

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References used:

The following information source was used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.

  1. Image downloaded from Stock Free Images web site at:
  2. "The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast," Pacific Institute, 2009-MAR-11, at:
  3. "The Impacts of Sea Level rise on the San Francisco Bay" Pacific institute, 2014-JUL at: at:
  4. "Sea-Level Rise: a slow-moving emergency," Select Committee Sea Level Rise and the California Economy. 2014-AUG, at:
  5. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Efforts in California," California Senate, 2015-NOV, at:
  6. Anne C. Mulkern, "Rising Sea Levels Will Hit California Harder Than Other Places," Scientific American, 2017-APR-27, at:
  7. Marshall Connolly, "Gravity map of Earth reveals scary fact about Greenland and sea level rise," Catholic Online, 2016-OCT-19, at:
  8. "The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast," Pacific Institute, 2009-MAR-11, at:
  9. "The Impacts of Sea Level rise on the San Francisco Bay" Pacific institute, 2014-JUL at: at:
  10. Anonymous author, "Quick Facts on Ice Sheets," National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2017, at:
  11. Ashley Mizuo, "Everything You Need to Know About Hawai‘i’s Record-Breaking King Tide," Honolulu Magazine, 2017-JUN-02, at:

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Copyright © 2017 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally posted: 2017-JUN-17
Author: B.A. Robinson

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