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2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.

Part 14:

2017-JAN:
Recent climate change measurements:
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This topic is continued from the previous essay

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The Earth's lower troposphere temperature in recent decades:

Dr. Joe Romm, founding Editor of Climate Progress, writing for Think Progress, posted a note titled: "We did it again! [2016-] November is hottest on record."

He included a graph of the "Lower troposphere temperature" of the Earth, as measured between the 1980's and 2016. The troposphere extends from the earth's surface to a height of 6 to 10 km (3.7 to 6.2 miles). Each point shown on the graph is the average temperature from December of the previous year to November of the current year. The data comes from RSS satellites. He stated in late 2016:

"... These data show that not only is November 2016 the hottest on record, but [that] there is an ongoing, annual trend."

Lower Trophosphere Temperature 1

Credit: Hotwhopper. 2

The average rate of warming is 0.18ºC/ per decade or 1.8ºC per century. That is 0.32ºF/ per decade or 3.2ºF per century. The consistent rise over recent years to 2013 to 2016 is probably partly driven by El Nino which reached a peak in 1016 and is decreasing during 2017.

The sloping line shown on the graph is generated by the equation: [y = 0.018 * x - 36.025], where Y = temperature in ºC, and X = year.

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2017: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data showing the temperature at the Earth's surface during the 20th and 21st centuries:

Temperature at the earth surface 3

The ten warmest years are shown highlighted in red, with 2016 -- the warmest -- shown in bold. They all occurred in the 21st century.

The ten coldest years are shown in green with the coldest shown in bold. They all occurred in the 20th century.

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The Cause: NOAA data showing the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere in parts per million, 1958 to 2016:

NOAA carbon dioxide level in atmosphere

4

NOT the Cause: The Sun's energy output in watts per square meter:

It has an 11 year cycle, but no noticeable trend up or down:

Sun's energy output 4

One effect: NOAA data showing global average temperature rise in Degrees Celsius compared to the 20th century average temperature:

(Multiply temperature rise by 1.8 to convert to Degrees Fahrenheit)

Global average temperature

year 4

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A second effect: Average shrinking in the thickness of the world's glaciers in meters of water equivalent:

(Multiply thickness by 3.28 to convert to feet)

Shrinkage of glacier thickness 4

year

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A third effect: Reduced ice coverage in the Arctic Sea:

The extent of sea ice in the Arctic varies during the year. It typically reaches a maximum during May and a minimum during September. 5 The BBC published a graph prepared by the National Snow and Ice Data Center showing the yearly minimum extent of sea ice between 1980 (when it was 7.8 million square km or 3.01 million square miles) to 2015 (when it was 4.6 million square km or 1.77 million square miles).

Arctic sea ice yearly minimums 4

One result of this loss of coverage are polar adventure expeditions through the NorthWest Passage.

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A fourth effect: Global average sea level in millimeters relative to the year 2000:

(Multiply level rise by 0.394 to convert to inches)

4

year

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Ice loss in Antarctic, 2002 to 2016:

 6

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This topic continues in the next essay

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Some more environment/climate change articles that may be of interest to you:

  • Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.

  • Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.

  • Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.

  • Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.

  • Part 5: 2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species. Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.

  • Part 6: 2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."

  • Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Continued). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.

  • Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth

  • Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.

  • Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.

  • Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.

  • Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 promised plans on energy and the environment.

  • Part 13: star 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.

 

  • Part 15: star 2017-JAN to APR: Climate Change beliefs are changing; more people accept it as real, and are now debating its cause.

  • Part 16: 2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Columbia. Carbon Dioxide
    in Atmosphere Reaches New High.


  • Part 17: 2017-JAN to APR: Studies of the effects of sea-level rise in California between now and the year 2100.
  • Part 18: President Trump Severs the U.S. from the Paris Accord.U.S. and World Leaders React.
  • Part 19: star More Reactions to the U.S. Withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Record high temperatures in San Francisco and elsewhere.

  • Part 20: star2017: Group of 20 summit meeting. Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas.Is climate change increasing the severity or frequency of hurricanes?

  • Part 21: Can government regulations help? Is Harvey a message from God? U.S. record high temperatures. Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas.
    Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, & GA.

References used:

The following information source was used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlink is not necessarily still active today.

  1. Joe Romm, "We did it again! November is hottest on record," Think Progress, 2016-DEC-06, at: https://thinkprogress.org/
  2. "Hottest November on record for the troposphere - with a comment on Trumped Up Courage," HotWhopper, 2016-DEC-03, at: http://blog.hotwhopper.com/
  3. "Six graphics that explain climate change, BBC News, 2017, at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/
  4. "Global Climate Dashboard," NOAA, undated, at: https://www.climate.gov/
  5. Jim Hunt, "Facts About the Arctic in August 2017," The Great White Con, 2017-AUG-18, at: http://greatwhitecon.info/
  6. "GRACE observations of Antarctic ice mass changes," NASA Climate Change, YouTube 2017-MAY-19, at: https://www.youtube.com/

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Copyright © 2017 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally posted: 2017-JUN-02
Latest update: 2017-SEP-01
Author: B.A. Robinson


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