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Climate Change. Part 27:

During 2018-AUG & SEP:
Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana
Climate change affecting Northern countries.

Hurricane Florence attacks the Carolinas.
Pat Robinson's "Shield of Protection" doesn't work.
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This topic is continued from the previous essay

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2018-AUG-27: Louisiana: Its wetlands are disappearing:

Amanda Ruggeri, writing for the British Broadcasting Corp., said that wetlands make up about one third of the area of the State of Louisiana. They provide a number of important functions:

  • They contribute to the state's seafood industry, which is second only to Alaska's in the U.S.

  • They provide a natural barrier against storm surge, hurricanes, tropical storms, and flooding. This is particularly important for the two-thirds of the state's residents who live near the coast. 6

She wrote:

"From 1932 to 2016 in Louisiana, on average, open water subsumed a chunk of wetlands the size of a football field every hour. ... The rate of loss has slowed. A football field is now being swallowed every 100 minutes. ..."

"Since the [Mississippi River] levee’s construction in the 1930s, the state has lost one-quarter of its wetlands: just under 2,000 square miles (5,100 sq. km.). That’s the size of Delaware, or Trinidad and Tobago. If nothing changes, Louisiana will lose another 1,000 square miles ( 2,600 sq. km.) -– that’s a Rhode Island or Luxembourg of land mass – by 2050."

Seth Blitch, director of coastal and marine conservation at the Nature Conservancy of Louisiana said:

"In recent years it’s reached a slowdown, but that’s because the most vulnerable spots are already gone. ... we are losing the natural resources that we depend on for our seafood, for our recreation, for our industries, and for our protection of inland communities."

Restoring wetlands has been computed as having an 8.7 benefit-to-cost ratio.

During 2016, the Nature Conservancy in Louisiana installed an experimental seawall along a portion of the shoreline. Most such seawalls are composed of concrete or rock. This one is made of 1.7 million pounds of oyster shells that were donated by area restaurants. Ruggeri wrote:

"The nooks and crannies of oyster shells provide extra surface area, absorbing wave energy and buffering the coastline more than a flat structure. They also offer protection to smaller sea creatures. And the shells allow water, bacteria and algae to flow through them. [This is] crucial for the marshes, which use the tidal flow to ‘breathe.’ Seeded with spat before they’re built, the oyster reefs also encourage other oysters to grow." 6

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2018-AUG-30: 2,000 dead fish at Malibu Lagoon in Southern California:

An estimated 2,000 striped mullet died and were washed up to the beach. California State Parks officials suspect that they died because of the high water temperature, which was about 81 ºF (27 ºC).

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2018-SEP-10: Climate change is significantly affecting Northern countries:

Most reports on climate change deal with the situation in developing nations in the global South. However, farmers in the North are also vulnerable to global warming.

Friday Phiri, writing for the Inter Press Service news agency, said:

"From incessant wild fires and powerful hurricanes in the United States and the Caribbean, to record-breaking high temperatures and droughts in Europe and Asia, the scientific community is unanimously in agreement that climate change is the more likely cause of these extremes in weather. And it is causing severe disruptions to agricultural production systems, the environment and biodiversity." 7

Leo De Jong is a farmer in the Netherlands province of Flevoland which was reclaimed from an inland sea in the early 20th century. He believes that the answer to the climate change threats in his country lies in farmers’ ability to:

"... balance between ecology and economy."

which can be achieved through various ways such as improved and efficient irrigation technology, research and innovation, as well as farmer-to-farmer knowledge exchanges like the one to which he belongs -- the Skylark Foundation. At the foundation he exchanges knowledge with a group of colleagues, mainly focusing on soil health. He said:

"I have a feeling that the climate is getting extreme but consistent usage of manure, cover crops, and other efficient sustainable practices guarantees good soil health, and soil health is the hallmark on which sustainable crop production is built." 7

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2018-SEP-14: Florence, a Category 4 hurricane, made landfall at Wrightsville Beach in Wilmington NC at 7:15 AM:

While the hurricane was still out in the Atlantic Ocean, Pat Robertson, a popular evangelical religious leader, cast a "shield of protection" over the Carolinas. He said:

"In the name of Jesus, you Hurricane Florence, we speak to you in the name of Jesus, and we command the storm to cease its forward motion and go harmlessly into the Atlantic. Go up north away from land and veer off in the name of Jesus. We declare in the name of the lord that you shall go no farther, you shall do no damage in this area. We declare a shield of protection all over Tidewater, and we declare a shield of protection over those innocent people in the path of this hurricane. In Jesus’ holy name, be out to sea! In Jesus’ name! 11

It appears that the shield of protection was not notably effective.

The influence of climate change/global warming on hurricanes is being debated by researchers. They are currently uncertain whether global warming is increasing the frequency of storms. However, there is general agreement that warmer ocean temperatures and higher sea levels due both to warmer oceans and melting glaciers are intensifying hurricanes. More details.

Damaging sustained winds of 90 mph, flash flooding, electrical power outages, and a storm surge as high as 10 feet (305 cm) was predicted for the Atlantic coastline. Florence was predicted to be the most intense storm to reach this area since Hugo, 25 years ago. The National Weather Service in Wilmington, NC wrote on SEP-11 that:

"This will likely be the storm of a lifetime for portions of the Carolina coast ... and that’s saying a lot given the impacts we’ve seen from [previous] hurricanes Diana, Hugo, Fran, Bonnie, Floyd, and Matthew."

Florence's impact could be as damaging as Hurricane Harvey in Texas during 2017. It may dump up to 40 inches of rain in some areas! About 1.7 million people were warned to evacuate in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. The number who did evaucate is unknown.

Florence made landfall at Wilmington, NC just North of the South Carolina boundary as a very slow moving Category-1 hurricane, 400 miles in diameter. The Wilmington airport had a wind gust clocked at 105 mph (169 kph), the highest since Hurricane Helene in 1958. Florence dropped a record amount of rainfall and caused storm surges that left much of the coastal area of North Carolina under water at high tide. Flooding was so severe in Fayetteville NC, which is 100 miles (160 km) inland, that water began to touch girders supporting a bridge's top deck and authorities closed the bridge. Florence turned Northwards and was later downgraded to a tropical depression.

On SEP-19, Governor Roy Cooper (D-NC) warned that the flooding from the storm is far from over and will get worse in some places as the water drains into rivers and flows toward the ocean.

Jonathan Drew, writing for Global News, said:

"Meteorologist Ryan Maue of weathermodels.com said Florence could dump a staggering 18 trillion gallons of rain over a week [interval] on North Carolina, South Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky and Maryland. That’s enough to ... cover the entire state of Texas with nearly 4 inches (10 centimetres) of water, he calculated."

By SEP-29, the death toll had risen to 48 people in three states. Thirty seven died in North Carolina 37. Also, about 1,500 people still remain in shelters. Among the most recent to die were two women who drowned when a sheriff's van was transporting them to a mental health facility in South Carolina. The van was swept away by floodwaters. 8,9,10

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This topic continues in the next essay, with developments during 2018-September & October

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References used:

The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.

  1. Dr. Jeff Masters, "Africa’s Hottest Reliably Measured Temperature on Record: 124.3°F on Thursday in Algeria," Weather Underground, 2018-JUL-06, at: https://www.wunderground.com/
  2. Nicole Javorsky,"Why New York City Is Reporting Its Sustainability Progress to the UN," Citylab, 2018-JUL-13, at: https://www.citylab.com/
  3. John Metcalfe, "Imagining the Most Catastrophic Climate Future Ever," Citylab, 2015-SEP-11, at: https://www.citylab.com/
  4. , "Death Valley Smashes Heat Record, 2nd Year in a Row," Live Science, 2018-AUG-01, at: https://www.livescience.com/
  5. "Death Valley Breaks Record for Hottest Month Ever in the US," Live Science, 2017-AUG-04, at: https://www.livescience.com/
  6. Amanda Ruggeri, "Louisiana is disappearing under water. Can oysters save it?, British Broadcasting Corp., 2018-AUG-27, at: http://www.bbc.com/
  7. Friday Phiri, "Climate Change Becomes a Reality Check for the North," Inter Press Service news agency, 2018-SEP-10, at: http://www.ipsnews.net/
  8. Jonathan Drew, "Hurricane Florence makes landfall in North Carolina, Global News, 2018-SEP-14, at: https://globalnews.ca/
  9. "Florence: Death toll climbs to 36 as women in sheriff's van drown," Aljazeera, 2018-SEP-19, at: https://www.aljazeera.com/
  10. "Florence death toll increases; 1,500 still in NC shelters," WTNH News 8, 2018-SEP-29, at: https://www.wtnh.com/
  11. Dan Broadbent, "Pat Robertson casts ‘Shield Of Protection’ against hurricane Florence – it’s not very effective," A Science Enthusiast, 2018-SEP-11, at: https://ascienceenthusiast.com/

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The following reports in this section that discuss environment and climate change may be of interest to you:

  • Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.

  • Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.

  • Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.

  • Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.

  • Part 5: 2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species. Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.

  • Part 6: 2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."

  • Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Continued). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.

  • Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth

  • Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.

  • Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.

  • Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.

  • Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 promised plans on energy and the environment.

  • Part 13: star 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.

  • Part 14: star 2017-JAN: Recent climate change measurements.

  • Part 15: star 2017-JAN to APR: Climate Change beliefs are changing; more people accept it as real, and are now debating its cause.

  • Part 16: 2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Colombia. Carbon Dioxide
    in Atmosphere Reaches New High.


  • Part 17: 2017-JAN to APR: Studies of the effects of sea-level rise in California between now and the year 2100.

  • Part 18: President Trump severs the U.S. from the Paris Accord. U.S. and world leaders react.

  • Part 19: 2017: More Reactions to the U.S. Withdraw from the Paris Agreement.

  • Part 20: star2017: Group of 20 summit meeting. Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas.Is climate change increasing the severity or frequency of hurricanes?

  • Part 21: Can government regulations help? Is Harvey a message from God? U.S. record high temperatures. Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas.
    Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, & GA.


  • Part 22: 2017-SEP/OCT: The most expensive recent hurricanes to attack the United States. Does God use Hurricanes to send a message? Conflicts; climate change causes rise in hunger.

  • Part 23: All UN states have signed the Paris Agreement. Government report contradicts the President. Comment by the Union of Concerned Scientists. Temperature records broken. Some fake news about the EPA that is too good to miss.

  • Part 24: 2018-FEB to MAY: New temperature records in Toronto. President signs bill increasing research."Onion's" amusing fake news. Sea levels rising; cities under water. Climate change beliefs as function of age. Proposed Mount Trumpmore project. How global warming is affecting California. Animal, Insect, & Bird Ranges Shrink. Nutrients in rice reduced. California Governor's comments.

  • Part 25: 2018-JUN: A very few encouraging signs. Hurricanes slowing as winds increase. Changes in Antarctic ice and environment. Norway's growing season ncreased.
    A new world highest temperature.


  • Part 26: 2018-JUN: New York City reports to the UN. Impacts of humans burning up all our fossil energy. WWW.CLIMATECENTRAL.ORG's tools. Death Valley, CA, sets new record.

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Copyright © 2017 & 2018 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally posted: 2017-JUN-10
Latest update: 2018-OCT-01
Author: B.A. Robinson


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