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Religion and science


Cosmology: modern, biblical and Pagan
Over a dozen proofs that the
Earth is close to spherical in shape

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earth A definition:

"Cosmology" involves the study of the origin and structure of the universe, including such topics as the shape of the earth, the the locations and paths of the sun, moon, planets and stars, the age of the universe, the evolution of stars, etc.

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Three main cosmological belief systems:

Historically, there have been four main Western beliefs about the layout, shape, size, movements, etc. of the earth, moon, sun and the rest of the universe:


Pre-scientific view: Ancient Pagan religions in the Mediterranean area and throughout the Middle East taught that the universe was quite tiny. These religions included those of ancient Egypt, Babylonia, Canaan, etc. The Earth was viewd as being more or less flat, like a dinner plate. Mountains around the edges held up a canopy in the shape of a rigid metallic dome which formed the sky. Angels pushed the sun, moon, planets and stars across the underside of the dome of the sky on a daily basis. God sits on his throne in Heaven, which lies above the canopy. Doors or windows in the dome could be opened through which water (and in the case of Sodom and Gomorrah) fire and brimstone could be poured. This is the view of the universe that the writers of the Bible appear to have adopted from these other Pagan religions, if one interprets their writing literally.


Earth centered view: The ancient Greeks introduced the concept that the Earth is a sphere at the center of the universe. The moon, sun and stars are all imbedded in transparent spheres which revolved around the earth. Heaven and God were viewed as existing at an extremely great distance from earth. They were even beyond the outermost sphere, which contains the stars.


Modern view: The Earth is roughly spherical in shape. Actually it is closest to an oblate spheroid -- a slightly pear-shaped body that bulges at its equator. It rotates on its own axis once a day and revolves once around the sun each year of about 365.2422 days. (To be precise, the Earth and Sun each revolve around their mutual center of gravity.) The Gregorian Calendar, which is in current use, considers every fourth year to be a leap year with 366 days. By itself, this would be a perfect match to a 253.25 day year. To increase its accuracy, years that are divisible by 100 and not divisible by 400 are not considered leap years. Thus the year 2100 will not be a leap year.

Our Sun is a somewhat average-sized star in a fairly typical, slowly rotating galaxy. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is perhaps 120,000 light years across. (A light-year is a measure of distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in a year.) Our galaxy contains at least 100 billion stars. There are perhaps 170 billion galaxies in the universe. One astronomer speculated that the total number of stars in the entire universe is approximately equal to the number of grains of sand on all the world's beaches.


Modern "Flat Earth" conspiracy view: The Earth is actually disk-shaped about 24,900 miles in diameter. The sun is a tiny sphere only about 32 miles in diameter, and is located about 3,000 miles above the Earth. All of the photographs of the Earth that have allegedly been taken from outer space clearly show it to be roughly spherical in shape. However, they are all forgeries created by people on Earth. Nobody has ever landed on the Moon.

The North Pole is at the center of the Earth. The South Pole does not exist as a point. Antarctica is not a roughly circular continent. Rather it is a narrow piece of land roughly 80.000 miles long, around the entire edge of the Earth. It keeps the oceans of the world in place. There is a dome over the Earth.

shape of the Earth according to believers in a flat earth

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Sponsored link:

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Topics on cosmology covered in this section:

bullet Two Pagan views, one modern view, one hoax, and one conspiracy theory:
  • Part 1: Overview about cosmological beliefs. Ancient Pagan view originating in Sumer.

  • Part 2: The revised Pagan view, as generally accepted within early Christianity.

  • Part 3: Greek Pagan cosmology (Cont'd). Modern view of the solar system. Church defends an Earth-centered view. The big hoax: that the church taught a flat earth during the Middle Ages

  • Part 4: The flat earth belief is reborn as a modern-day conspiracy theory. Three proofs that it is false.

  • Part 5: Three additional proofs that the flat earth belief is false.

  • Part 6: Five additional proofs that the flat earth belief is false.

  • Part 7: Arguments about the Earth's shape. One more proof of a spherical Earth. More passages from the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) about the Earth's shape.

  • Part 8: Passages from the Christian Scriptures (New Testament) about the Earth's shape. Additional proofs that the Earth is not flat.

  • Part 9: Proofs 15 to 21 that the Earth is not flat. Is the Flat Earth group sincere or perpetrating a hoax?


Bible passages about cosmology:

bulletHow conservative and liberal Christians interpret these passages

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References used:

The following information source was used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlink is not necessarily still active today.

  1. Eric Dubay, "Flat Earth Star Trails Explained," You Tube, uploaded on 2015-SEP-16, at:

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Site navigation:

 Home page >  Christianity > Bible & the world > here

 Home page >  Religion & science > here

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Copyright © 2001 to 2016 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally written: 2002-JAN-28
Latest update: 2016-OCT-04
Author: B.A. Robinson

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