The book of Daniel:
Its date and author. Interpretation
visions, and the
end of the world.
Disagreement over the author and date of the book of Daniel:
- Jesus appears to have verified that the book was actually written by Daniel.
In Matthew 24:15,
he is quoted as stating: "So, when you see the 'abomination of desolation,' of which the prophet
Daniel spoke, standing in the holy place...then those who are in Judea must take to
- The early Christian church accepted the belief that Daniel himself wrote this book during the 6th
- During the 3rd century CE, the philosopher Porphyry wrote a book "Against the Christians" in which he wrote: "The book of Daniel was written not by the man whom it is named after, but by someone who lived in Judea at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes."
- Today, conservative Christians generally accept the literal truth of the Bible. They believe that the book of Daniel was actually written by Daniel during the 6th Century BCE. The Bible implies this in several verses, including:
- Daniel 7:1: "Then he wrote down the dream, and here his
- Daniel 7:28: "...as for me, Daniel, my thoughts dismayed me
- Daniel 8:1: "...a vision appeared to me, Daniel, following my
- Daniel 9:2: "I, Daniel, was reading the scriptures..."
- Daniel 10:2: "At that time I, Daniel, mourned for three whole
- Daniel 12:5: "I, Daniel, looked and saw two others standing..."
- Since the 19th century CE, most Old Testament scholars have dated the Book of Daniel to the 2nd century BCE. Liberal Christians generally accept this dating and believe that the book was actually written during the Maccabean revolt against the Greek occupying
forces in 168-164 BCE. They regard the book as pseudepigraphic -- written by an anonymous
author or authors, and attributed to Daniel. They base this conclusion on a number of factors:
- The text contains a number of Greek words; yet the Greek occupation of the area did not
occur until the 4th century BCE.
- One of the musical instruments mentioned in Daniel 3:5 and in
subsequent passages did not exist until they were developed in Greece during the 2nd century BCE .
- Daniel 1:4 refers to the "Chaldeans" as a priestly class in
Babylon. This term did not attain this meaning until much later than the 6th century BCE.
- About 180 BCE, Jeshua ben Sira listed the heroes of the Jewish faith, including "Enoch, Noah and Abraham through to Nehemiah;" Daniel is not mentioned - presumably because Jeshua is unaware of him. This would indicate that the book of Daniel was written after that time.
- In Chapter 12 of the book of Daniel, the author discusses the dead being resurrected, judged, and taken to
either heaven or hell. At the time of Daniel, the Jews believed that all persons went to Sheol after death. The concept of heaven
and hell was introduced centuries later by the Pagan Greeks. It did not appear in Israel
until the time of the Maccabean revolt.
- Daniel 11:31 (and elsewhere) refers to "the abominable thing
that causes desolation." This appears to refer to the installation of a statue of
Zeus in the Jerusalem temple during 167 BCE. This reference would indicate that the book was written
at that time or more recently.
- In the first part of the book of Daniel, before Daniel 11:40, the author(s) accurately recorded historical events
under the Babylonian, Median, Persian and Greek empires. However, in Daniel 11:40-45, he wrote that:
- A king of the south (of the
Ptolemaic dynasty) attacked the Greeks in Judea, under Antiochus.
- The Greeks won, laid spoil to all of northeast Africa, and returned to Judea where Antiochus
- The end of history then occurred.
However, none of these events actually happened, according to the historical record. Antiochus did die in 164 BCE, but that happened in Persia.
Thus, the book was apparently completed at some time before 164 BCE.
Liberal Christians generally believe that the Book of Daniel is a work of
fiction. Fables and myths about a non-existent ancient hero, Daniel's, were passed down orally
for centuries, and then finally written down by an unknown
sometime between 168 and 164 BCE. At the end of the book, the author(s) then unsuccessfully attempted to predict
events in his or her future.
Interpretation of the dreams, visions and end of the world:
|Conservative Christians generally believe that the 4
earthly kingdoms mentioned
in different places in the book represent the empires of:|
- Babylon (represented by the lion/eagle symbol and gold)
- Medo-Persia (considered as a single empire; represented as the bear,
- Greece (represented as the leopard and bronze)
- Rome (represented as the terrible beast, and iron). Since the end of
the world and resurrection of the dead in Daniel 12 has not happened yet,
then it must be in our future. Most conservative Christians look upon the fourth empire as
existing in two parts:
|the first is the historical Roman Empire;|
||the second phase has not yet risen to power. It will be the Kingdom of the Antichrist.
Many conservative Christians believe that the Antichrist will be a European and that the
revived Roman Empire will evolve out of the European Community (a.k.a. EC).|
"Pre-millenialist Christians" believe that this
second phase of the Roman Empire will come to an end at the second coming of Christ and
the war of Armageddon. Many conservative Christians interpret the book of Daniel and
describe the end of the world as happening in our immediate
future. Many predicted TEOTWAWKI (The End of the World as We Know It) on various dates, in 2000 or 2001 CE. When this time passed, further predictions were made. All of the predictions up to the present time have failed. This book is one of the most important sections of the
Hebrew Scriptures because of the prophecies based on the 4 earthly kingdoms.
||Many Liberal Christians interpret the 4 earthly kingdoms mentioned in the book as referring to the actual foreign countries
occupied what is now Palestine between the 6th century and 2nd century BCE:
- Babylon (represented by the lion/eagle symbol and gold). They attacked
the Southern Kingdom in the 580's BCE.
- The Median empire (bear symbol and silver). Daniel 5-31
records how "Darius the Mede" conquered Babylon and killed king
Belshazzar. This belief probably arose out of many predictions in Isaiah and Jeremiah that
Babylon would fall to the Medes. In reality, the Median and Babylonian kingdoms coexisted
until the Medians were conquered about 550 BCE and the Babylonians were conquered in 539,
both by the Persians. Darius was not a Median king. Apparently the later Persian king
"Darius the Great" was confused by the author(s) with
last Median king.
- The Persian empire (symbolized by a leopard and bronze).
- The Greek empire (terrible beast and iron). They conquered Judea in
332 BCE. Daniel 2:41 and 11:3 described it as a kingdom
ruled by a warrior king that is divided into 4 sections after his death. None of the 4
sections will be ruled by his descendents. This fits precisely with the structure of
the Macedonian-Greek empire of Alexander the Great. After his death, it was divided among
four of his generals. Daniel 2:43 refers to
the mixing of families by intermarriage, and mentions that these arrangements would not be
stable. Again, this fits well with the attempts that the Seleucid (the King of the North
in Daniel 11:7) and Ptolemaic (the King of the South in Daniel
11:5) dynasties to achieve peace and stability through intermarriage. The
attempts were unsuccessful.
At the time of the writing of the book of Daniel, circa 166 BCE, the Greek empire
occupied what is now Palestine. Since the book was written after the rise of the
final empire, the author had the advantage of hindsight. That is, the book is mainly a history of
past events, not a prophecy of the future. The author wrote the book almost
a century before the Roman Empire invaded what is now Palestine. Since he had no
knowledge or expectation of this invasion, it was not mentioned in the book.
In the final chapter of Daniel, the author describes the "end of history"
- a resurrection of the dead, judgment and transfer the resurrected dead to heaven or
hell. According to Daniel 12:12, these events would happen during approximately three
years following the "abomination of desolation" (the erection of a statue of
Zeus in the Jewish temple in 167 BCE). Some Bible scholars have interpreted this period of
time as occupying many millennia. But this is clearly not a valid interpretation, because
Daniel 12:12 refers to people who "wait and live to see the completion of the
interval." That would have happened between 167 and 170 BCE. It clearly did not.
If the author(s) could have accurately predicted the future after 164 BCE, he would
have prophesied some additional earthly empires that controlled Palestine:
|5. The Roman Empire (from 63
|6. Byzantine Empire (from 313 CE)|
|7. Arab conquest; control of Palestine by Muslim groups (from 636 CE)|
|8. Christian Crusaders from Europe (from 1099 CE)|
|9. Mamluks under Saladin reinstate Muslim rule (from 1291 CE)|
|10. Ottoman rule (from 1517 CE)|
|11. British Empire rule (from 1917 CE)|
|12. The State of Israel (1948 CE
to the present time)|
From the time of Daniel to the present day, Palestine has been controlled by 11 foreign
empires until Israel finally attained independence in 1948 CE. The author(s) of the book
of Daniel, apparently writing about 166 CE, failed miserably to predict his or her future.
Many religious liberals classify this book as apocalyptic literature. This writing
style was quite common in Israel from the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The book
of Revelation in the Christian Scriptures (New Testament) is perhaps the
best known example. The writings were attributed to a famous historical hero in order
to give them credibility: Daniel in the case of the book of Daniel; John in the case of Revelation.
- Farrell Till, "Bible Inerrancy: A Belief Without Evidence," available
- G.A.F. Knight, "The Book of Daniel," part of "The
Interpreter's One-volume Commentary on the Bible," Abingdon Press, Nashville TN,
- A.E. Hill & J.H. Walton, "A Survey of the Old Testament,"
Zondervan, Grand Rapids MI, (1991), Pages 349 to 356.
- H.H Halley, "Halley's Bible Handbook," Zondervan, Grand Rapids MI,
(1997) Pages 336 to 352.
- J.D. Douglas, Ed., "New Commentary on the Whole Bible, Old Testament Volume,"
Tyndale, Wheaton, IL, (1990), Pages 1165 to 1204.
- Hank Hanegraaff, "Is the Book of Daniel Genuine Prophecy? (Part One of Four)," Christian Research Institute email, 2016-PCT-10.
Copyright © 1998 to 2016 by Ontario
Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update 2016-OCT-08
Author: B.A. Robinson