Specific reasons why scientists
don't believe in creation science
Two major competing models of the Earth's past are:
New Earth creation Scientists generally conclude that:
God created all of the species during a short period of time,
perhaps about 4004 BCE, and certainly not before 10,000 BCE.
God created all of the species of bacteria, primitive one-celled creatures, trilobites, dinosaurs, humans,
etc. within a few days of each other. Just as The Flintstones cartoon shows, humans
and dinosaurs wandered about the earth together.
During the 40 days of rain and the approximately nine months of drainage of the Noachian
flood, all of the land animals outside the ark were drowned. Various deposits were formed
with sediment and the bodies of dead animals; their remains became fossils, embedded
in rock layers.
Most scientists believe that a very different sequence of events happened:
That a primitive, one-celled life form came into existence by some
series of natural processes, billions
of years ago. Scientists are currently only dimly aware of the nature of these
Billions of years later, this primitive life form had evolved into more complex species
(e.g. trilobites), even as the primitive life forms became extinct.
Later species evolved into Dinosaurs hundreds of millions of years ago. They died
out, probably becuuse of extreme environmental
changes brought about by a massive collision of an asteroid with the
Earth. But new species that evolved from the dinosaurs and other species that were on earth with the dinosaurs
continued to evolve.
Homo Sapiens, Neanderthals, and some of the higher apes appeared much more recently, and
shared a common ancestor. Neanderthals became extinct.
All during this extinction of old species and arrival of new species, individual animals
died. A very small fraction of those with hard shells or a skeleton became converted to fossils and were
embedded in rocks.
Most scientists do not believe that any world-wide flood has occurred.
There are serious questions about where all the water came from and
In addition, there are some Christians who believe that God created the
universe billions of years ago. There are also hundreds of stories of
origins taught by various religions around the world. We concentrate here on
new earth creationism and the scientific consensus because these are the
most commonly discussed belief systems.
Why scientists believe that creation science's concepts of
The above are two very different models of the past.
It is fairly simple to
show why almost all scientists reject the creation science model:
science is correct, then the fossils and sedimentary rocks were
formed quickly during the flood. Fossil-containing rocks which are closer to the surface
will contain generally larger animals of all the species that have ever lived, while the
deeper rocks will tend to contain more smaller species of animals. That is because the
smaller animals would presumably drown first with the rising water level, while larger
animals could survive longer before dying, and travel further from the rising flood waters.
But there would be the occasional fossil from a large animal mixed in with the smaller
animals deep in the fossil record. Remains of ground-hugging plants would tend to be in
the deepest layers of rocks; larger trees would be in rocks closer to the surface. But
there would be the occasional fossils of a fallen tree that would be trapped in a deep layer of
sedimentary rock among "ground-huggers".
If you looked long enough, you would
find (for example) the occasional dinosaur mixed in with human remains. You would find a
Jurassic Cycad (an extinct tree) mixed with some more modern Maple trees.
be found everywhere. As Charles Pellegrino stated:
"As we dug deeper and deeper beneath Thebes, everything would be the same; we
would find hand axes, clams and dinosaurs mixed together all the way down."1
In addition, as you excavated through layers of rock, you would occasionally discover
signs of human habitation at the bottom layer -- cities, towns,villages, cornerstones, etc.
-- which were
covered first by the flood. Scientists would find shaped rocks that were once part of buildings; remains of campfires;
fabricated tools; fabricated timbers, graves, corner stones, etc. at the bottom of the fossil record.
If the Theory of Evolution is correct then the fossil record and sedimentary
rocks were formed over many hundreds of millions of years, as species evolved. One would expect to see that
deeper rocks would contain more primitive forms of live, and shallower fossils would be of
more highly evolved species. The tens of thousands of geologists and paleontologists
working over the past centuries would never find a single Jurassic Cycad fossil
mixed in with a Maple tree fossil. That is because Maples emerged during the more recent
Cretaceous era when the Cycads were long extinct. Dinosaurs would never
be mixed with the remains of humans, dogs, cats and other modern mammals. Only a
primitive, small mammalian species would be found together with Dinosaurs. And no mammals or
dinosaurs at all would be found with trilobites (an early form of life that is long
extinct). There would be no signs of human habitation at the lowest layer; only very
primitive life forms. In fact, there are probably at least 1 million pairs
of species that would never be found together in the same rock layer.
If creation science is true, then the fossil record, from bottom to top would be
mainly composed of gradually larger species. But there would be the occasional random
mixture of species as well: trilobites with humans with dinosaurs with maples with Cycad
trees. Species would be somewhat mixed. The very bottom layers would include signs of
If the theory of
evolution is true, then the fossil record, from bottom to top,
would show gradually more complex, less primitive species. And certain species would be
only found in certain layers; they would never be found in others. A trilobite
would never be found with a dinosaur; a dinosaur would never be found with a human fossil.
Species would be rigidly segregated. There would be no signs of human habitation in the
have concluded that the theory of evolution is true.
They have travelled to the Grand Canyon in Arizona,
and to thousands of other locations around the world, and
studied the fossil record. They
have found fossils of
thousands of species of plants and animals which evolutionary scientists believe did not
exist on the earth simultaneously. The older species died out before the first member of
the more recent species evolved. They can pick any pair
of species (e.g. dinosaurs and humans). The
that the fossils of the two species have never been found together.
Also, archaeologist have never found
remains of ancient villages and towns in and below
the oldest layers of rock.
The vast majority of scientists
working in the field of biology and geology have
concluded that the teachings of Creation Science are incompatible with the
observed fossil record.
To continue with Charles Pellegrino's quotation:
"... we begin to see the stages of a lengthy history, in which dinosaurs and
other creatures are segregated in specific layers of rock, and the farther back we track
along the stream of time, the more unlike modern creatures the animals become".
In short, the distribution of fossils in rock is a persuasive indicator that
convinces scientists that young-earth creation science
Additional reasons why most scientists disbelieve in
Scientists completed analyzing core samples taken from the bed of the Atlantic Ocean in
early 1997. Their three drill samples taken from three locations off the east coast of
Florida.1,2 Their drills penetrated up to 92 meters (300 feet)
the deepest layers contained evidence of many species of animals and came from what the
project leader, paleobioligist Dr. Richard Norris, called a "happy-go-lucky" ocean.
above this was a small layer with green glass pebbles, that were originally fused under
intense heat. This is believed to be ocean bottom material that was instantly melted by
the intense energy release of a colliding asteroid
next was a rusty brown layer that is thought to be from the "vaporized remains
of the asteroid itself," dated about 65 million years ago. This layer is found
elsewhere in the world and contains a high content of iridium, which is a chemical
"signature" of asteroids.
above this is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) of gray clay with strong evidence of a
nearly dead ocean. "It was not a completely dead ocean, but most of the species
that are seen before [earlier in the core sample] are gone. There are just some very
minute fossils. These were the survivors in the ocean"
above this layer, core samples showed evidence of renewed life.
These results showed that the iridium layer, which has been found at many locations
around the world on land, is also observable in the ocean bed. Fossils of highly developed
species (man, large mammals, etc.) have never been found below that layer; fossils of
ancient species (dinosaurs, trilobites, and a few tens of thousands of other species) have
never been found above that layer. If all species were created within a one week period,
as described in Genesis, and all the land animals were preserved on Noah's ark, then all
land species would be found both above and below the iridium layer.
There are additional indicators why many scientists
believe that the order of creation described in Genesis
could not have happened:
Some plants rely upon birds and ants for propagation. If plants were created on Day 3,
and birds and ants were created on Day 5 and 6, and if each Genesis "day" is
equal to 1000 or more real years (as some creation scientists believe), then some plants would
have had to survive without propagation for thousands of years. To other creation
scientists who believe that a "day" in Genesis is literally 24 hours, then this
does not present a problem.
The fossil record clearly shows that land animals developed before birds. But the
Genesis account indicates the reverse.
Scientists have found many other indicators that other parts of the book of Genesis are in error. Some
Theologians have generally agreed that the Bible
teaches that the earth is less than 10,000 years of age. However, in
Wyoming, the Green River
Formation shows that varves -- a 260 meters
thick formation made from annual layers of sediment
-- were laid down for the past
2 million years.
3 Ice core samples have been taken in Greenland that show 40,000 annual
layers of ice. In each case, one detectable layer of sediment or ice is laid down each
The Bible said that Noah loaded the entire ark with two (or seven) from each species
within a 24 hour day. This would have required him to have taken into the vessel,
classified and stored 480 species per second.
Noah took his wife, three sons, and three daughters-in-law into the ark. Each person
would have had to sort, house, look after, feed, water, and remove the excrement from about 5
million animals each day.
Noah is said to have built an all-wooden arc about 450 feet long. Long wooden ships,
some as long as 300 feet, have actually been built, but they required extensive metal
reinforcing - an option not available to Noah. And they leaked badly, requiring either a
large crew or mechanically driven pumps to remove water from the hold. Motor driven pumps
were not available in those days, and there were not enough humans on the arc to
manually pump the water.
Many animals can only survive in certain small regions of the earth where the food
supply and temperatures are ideal. These species could not have left their homeland, moved
through jungle and desert in order to reach the arc; they would not have
survived the journey.
There was no mechanism whereby animals found only in North America, South America,
and Australia could cross oceans and arrive
at the arc.
When there are fewer than about 40 members to a species, extinction is inevitable, even
when massive human intervention occurs. After the flood there would have been only 2 or 7
members to each species; they would not have survived.
The Bible states that the Tower of Babel
was constructed 110 to 150 years after the flood.
One might ask how could
the 3 fertile female human survivors of the flood (Noah's daughters
in law) produce such a
large number of descendants within 6 generations?
There is no indication of a worldwide flood in ancient Egyptian, Indus or Chinese
writings, temples, pyramids, sculptures, etc., which existed at the time of Noah.
Yet, if the flood really did occur, then all of the world's early civilizations would have
been completely destroyed. The entire population of the world would have consisted of 8
people, in the vicinity of the ark. It would have taken millennia for humanity to become
re-established in China and elsewhere. Also, they would have developed a very different
culture from the pre-flood society. The archaeological record in Egypt would
show a sudden change from ancient Egyptian artifacts, to no signs of
civilization, to ancient Israelite culture after the time of the flood.
The archaeological record in China would show a sudden change from
ancient Chinese artifacts, to no signs of civilization, to ancient
Israelite culture after the time of the flood. And so on. But the archaeological record shows that the
were not interrupted; they continued to develop throughout the period when the flood is
supposed to have happened. For example, the Egyptian "Old Kingdom" covered the era from
2649 BCE to 2134 BCE, the 3rd to the 8th dynasty. In particular, the fifth dynasty covered
the interval 2465 to 2323 BCE, straddling the time when
religious conservatives believe that the flood happened.
One might ask how would the fish survive? Some fish require fresh water, some brackish water and some
salt water. If sufficient water were added to the oceans so that the level rose above that
of the highest mountains, then the salinity of the oceans would drastically change. There
would have been a mass die-off of fish species; only a few tolerant ocean fish would have
survived. The salt content of all the fresh water lakes in the world would
drastically increase, causing a die-off of numerous fish species found
only in fresh water. None of this happened, except in one small area of
the world: the Black Sea circa 5600 BCE. This
is believed by many scientists to be the source of the world-wide flood
myth of ancient Babylonian that was adopted by the ancient Jewish
writers who wrote the Bible.
Paul Recer, Associated Press news release, 1997-FEB-17.
U.S. News & World Report, 1997-MAR-3. Page
John Banister-Marx & Larry Flammer, "Varves:
Dating sedimentary strata," Evolution & the Nature of Science
Institutes, (1999) at: