Indicators of a young Earth, with rebuttals
Indicators 1 to 5 based on Earth observations
Five indicators of a young earth included in this essay are:
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Mineral halos
- Pressure on oil deposits
- Presence of oil
- Shape of the earth
Indicator 1: Second law of thermodynamics:
Henry Morris wrote:
"All processes manifest a tendency toward decay and
disintegration, with a net increase in what is called the entropy, or state of
randomness or disorder, of the system. This is called the Second Law of
Evolution teaches the opposite: that entropy decreases and complexity
and order increases. Evolution is impossible because it violates the universally
accepted second law of thermodynamics.
Rebuttal: This argument has been around for decades. Scientists have probably repeated a rebuttal thousands of times. However, Creationists continue to ignore it. Creationists often do not quote the full text
of the Second Law. In fact, Morris' conclusion is incorrect. All processes
do not exhibit a tendency towards decay and disintegration. It is only the
overall entropy of a closed system which increases over time.
K.R. Miller writes:
that some parts of a system may indeed become more orderly and complex so
long as this increase in order is balanced by an equal or greater decrease
in order elsewhere. This, of course, is exactly what living things do --
as they grow and evolve they use enormous amounts of energy (usually in
the form of food), producing a thermodynamic balance in the system as a
whole. The second law no more forbids evolution than it forbits a tiny
seed from growing into a larger, more complex tree. Both processes require
energy to proceed, and both are in perfect accordance with the laws of
There are many examples on earth in which entropy decreases and order increases:
- The formation of snowflakes.
- Formation of salt crystals.
- Seeds becoming plants.
- Eggs becoming chickens.
- Newborn humans becoming adults.
Evolution of species of life is one more example. Evolution on earth
was/is made possible by the rise in entropy in the sun. Talk.Origins has
a full treatment of this topic online. 3
Dr. Gentry discovered in the late 1970's countless halos
found inbiotite and flourite, which are minerals found within some granites. These "are
beautiful microspheres of coloration produced by the radioactive decay of primordial
polonium." 4 P0 214 has a half life of about of 3
minutes. The "Polonium Halos" web site explains these halos by analogy:
speck of polonium in molten rock can be compared with an Alka-Seltzer dropped into a glass
of water. The beginning of effervescence is equated to the moment that polonium atoms
began to emit radioactive particles. In molten rock the traces of those radioactive
particles would disappear as quickly as the Alka-Seltzer bubbles in water. But if the
water were instantly frozen, the bubbles would be preserved."
Essentially all geologists, who
are not creation scientists, believe that these structures took millions of years to
crystallize. The existence of the halos thus is convincing evidence that the granite rocks
(and the rest of the world) were created instantaneously - a type of flash freezing.
Rebuttal: A number of alternative explanations have been suggested. All
are consistent with an earth that cooled down over millions of years, and subjected to
hundreds of millions of hears of weathering, - not created during the course of a Genesis
day: Some have suggested: 5
- the halos were created by fluids that carried Polonium into the crystals
- the halos were created from Po ions in fluids released during the weathering of
- the halos were caused by diffusion of beta-emitting lead isotopes
- the halos were formed by uranium, not polonium.
All of these explanations have been met with counter arguments by Gentry. However,
Collins noted that Po halos only occur in granite rock which contains myrmekite. This
indicates that the granite did not form from the gradual cooling of magma. It
formed by subsequent, long-term replacement of the solid rocks through cataclasis and
recyrstallization. This provided openings for the introduction of uranium-bearing fluids.
Radon associated with the uranium "nucleate in the rapidly growing biotite (and
florite) crystals whence they are positioned to produce the Po halos." 5
Indicator 3: Pressure of oil deposits:
M.A. Cook claimed in his book "Prehistory and
Earth Models" that if underground oil was as old as geologists claim that its
pressure would have dissipated long ago. The fact that oil is found under pressure
indicates that it is 10,000 years or less old. Presumably all of the natural gas would
have escaped as well if the earth was old.
Rebuttal: Gas and oil accumulate gradually, as pressure and heat work on
organic matter over long periods of time. If the rocks holding in the reservoirs of gas
and oil were as leaky as creation scientists indicate, then this pressure never would have
built up in the first place.
"They say it takes millions of year to make oil but
scientists did it in a lab in 20 minutes." Another visitor to our site
referred to a sewage treatment plant in Halifax, NS, Canada. They stated that: "Using
heat to turn Halifax's half-million tons of sewage per year into 700,000
barrels of oil, the entire process takes about 30 minutes!"
Rebuttal: Under normal conditions (those found in nature) it does take a long
time for oil to develop. But under ideal conditions (temperature, pressure, catalysts,
etc.) it can be almost instantaneous.
It is useful to remember that oil is formed from plant life that is
laid down in sedimentary layers. But by the time that it is found, the oil has
typically migrated considerable distances through rock of varying
porosities. Such migration typically takes millions of years to
accomplish. So, the existence of underground oil is a good indicator of an
The increase of the earth's equatorial bulge would have
flattened it out into a spinning pancake if it were really 5 billion years old:
Rebuttal: The shape of the earth (or of any planet or moon) is the
result of two opposing factors:
- Force of Gravity: The earth behaves as a highly viscous fluid. Over a
long enough time period,
"it will flow to relieve shear stresses and to bring
normal stress to the hydrostatic state (the case where all normal stresses are equal). In
this state, pressure is only a function of depth. Since pressure is the product of
gravitational acceleration times the mass of overlaying material, this implies that the
planet adopts a spherical shape...Thus, solely under the influence of gravity, we would
expect any large planet to flow and eventually adopt a spherical figure." 6
- Centrifugal effects: Since the earth rotates on its axis,
the centrifugal effect pushes the equator outwards, and flattens the polar regions.
The gravitational force is enormously greater than the centrifugal force, so the
earth's shape is almost a perfect sphere. The equatorial diameter is about 12,756 km
(7,900 miles). The "polar diameter was calculated as about 26.5 miles shorter
than the equatorial diameter." 7The force of
gravity has been essentially constant over time. It is a function of the mass of the earth which is
increasing only very slowly as a result of impacts of meteorites and space dust accretion.
The centrifugal force is decreasing with time as the earth's rotation slows. Both effects
will work towards a gradual decrease in the equatorial bulging with time. The earth is
becoming closer to a perfect sphere.
Measurements of equatorial radius gave 6,378.140 km in 1976, 6,378.137 km in 1980 and
6,378.136 km in 1983. 8 This seems to indicate that the bulge
is decreasing with time. However, the decrease is probably not statistically valid; it may well
probably due to random measuring errors.
Related essays on this web site:
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.
- Henry Morris, "The remarkable birth of planet earth,"
Page 14. Out of print. Read
reviews or try to get a used copy safely from Amazon.com online book store
- K.R. Miller, "Finding Darwin's God," Cliff Street
Books, (1999). Page 300. Read
reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store
- Frank Steiger, "The second law of thermodynamics, evolution and
probability," Talk.Origins Archive at: http://www.talkorigins.org/
- "Polonium Halos: Evidence for earth's instant creation?" at: http://www.halos.com/
- L.G. Collins, "Polonium halos and myrmekite in pegmatite and granite"
- "Gravity and the Shape of the Earth," at: http://wwwcatsic.ucsc.edu/
- Integrated Technology Education Learning Center of Jupiter Middle School,
Jupiter, FL at: http://www.comp-acc.com/
- "Earth: Geodetic and Geophysical Data" at: http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/
Copyright © 1996 to 2012 by Ontario Consultants on
Last updated: 2012-SEP-21
Author: B.A. Robinson