Status in the North America by the end of 2002, before the 2005 court
According to the Death Penalty
Information Center, in the United States at the end of 2002:
Sixteen states set 18 as the minimum age
at the time of a commission of a crime for a person to be eligible for
the death penalty.
Five states have 17 years as the minimum
age (FL, GA, NH, NC, TX).
Seventeen set 16 as the minimum age (AL,
AZ, AR, DE, ID, KY, LA, MS, MO, NV, OK, PA, SC, SD, UT, VA, WY). 1,2
There have only been 22
juvenile executions carried out between 1973 to 2003. Of these, 18 (81%)
were in Texas, Virginia, or Oklahoma. Texas alone is responsible for 13
executions. 3 The trend appears to be towards
an gradual elimination of juvenile executions in the U.S., except in Texas. 4
Canada abandoned the death penalty, for ordinary crimes, in 1976. However, in 1959, Steven Truscott, then 14 years of age, was
charged with the murder of a 12 year old girl, Lynne Harper. He was tried and convicted. At the age of 16, he was sentenced to hang.
Fortunately, the sentence was never carried out. He served ten years before being paroled. Recent evidence has emerged that proves
beyond reasonable doubt that he is innocent of the crime. He has been exonerated by the courts.
Rulings on the execution of child criminals by U.S. courts:
The U.S. Supreme Court, the Supreme Court of Missouri, and the high courts of
other states have made several rulings on this topic in recent
1988: Execution banned where criminal was 15 years of age or
younger: In the U.S. Supreme Court case Thompson v. Oklahoma, a boy had been
convicted of having actively participating in a brutal murder when he
was 15 years of age. The court ruled that capital punishment in the U.S.
was unconstitutional if applied to a child who was 15 years of age or younger at the
time of the offense. 5 Justice
"... that the 'cruel and unusual punishments'
prohibition of the Eighth Amendment, made applicable to the States by
the Fourteenth Amendment, prohibits the execution of a person who was
under 16 years of age at the time of his or her offense....In
determining whether the categorical Eighth Amendment prohibition
applies, this Court must be guided by the 'evolving standards of decency
that mark the progress of a maturing society,' [Trop v. Dulles, 356 U.S.
86, 101], 6 and, in so doing, must review
relevant legislative enactments and jury determinations and consider the
reasons why a civilized society may accept or reject the death penalty
for a person less than 16 years old at the time of the crime." 7
Justice Stevens noted that, at the time:
19 states and the Federal Government
theoretically allowed capital punishment of offenders of any age.
However, 18 states specified a minimum age at the time of the
offense before the death penalty could be imposed. All of the latter
states specified 16 years.
That age was "consistent with the views expressed by respected professional
organizations, by other nations that share the Anglo-American
heritage, and by the leading members of the Western European
community" at the time.
Only five of the 1,393 persons sentenced to death in the U.S.
between 1982 and 1986 were 15 years or younger at the time of the
Children should be regarded as having reduced culpability for
their actions, when compared to an adult. This is because they have
relatively less inexperience, education, and intelligence. [The
definition of "intelligence" that Justice Stevens used in the
ruling is not known]. In addition, children are much more apt to be
motivated by emotion or peer pressure. 7
1989:Execution OK if
criminal was 16 or 17 years of age:
In the case of Stanford v. Kentucky,
the U.S. Supreme Court, allowed the executions of two
males who were children at the time they committed murder. Kevin
Stanford was about 17 years, 4 months of age. Heath Wilkins was about 16
years, 6 months of age. The vote was 5 to 4 -- a common result on rulings
involving morality and ethics.
As noted above, an unusually large number of religious and secular organizations filed amicus
curiae (friend of the court) briefs in support of Stanford
Justice Scalia wrote the majority report for the
court. He noted that. at the time:
"...at least 281
offenders under 18, and 126 under 17, have been executed in this
"Of the 37 States that permit capital punishment, 15 decline
to impose it on 16-year-olds and 12 on 17-year-olds. This does not
establish the degree of national agreement this Court has previously
thought sufficient to label a punishment cruel and unusual."
"From 1982 through 1988...out of 2,106 total death sentences,
only 15 were imposed on individuals who were 16 or under when they
committed their crimes, and only 30 on individuals who were 17 at
the time of the crime."
"Public opinion polls, the views of interest groups, and the
positions of professional associations are too uncertain a
foundation for constitutional law. Also insufficient is
socioscientific or ethicoscientific evidence tending to show that
capital punishment fails to deter 16- and 17-year-olds because they
have a less highly developed fear of death, and fails to exact just
retribution because juveniles, being less mature and responsible,
are less morally blameworthy." 8
2002:Court refuses to revisit
Stanford case: The U.S. Supreme Court was bitterly divided -- as is its
usual states on matters related to ethics and morality -- when presented
with the option of considering whether to review a lower court conviction. They
voted 5 to 4 to not accept the case. It involved Kevin Nigel
Stanford, a Kentucky youth who was 17 when he abducted, raped, shot, and
killed a 20 year old woman. This was the same individual that they
reviewed 13 years earlier in Stanford v. Kentucky. Justice John
Paul Stevens wrote for the minority and was joined by Justices David
Souter, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer. He called teen execution
a "shameful practice.....The practice of executing such offenders is
a relic of the past and is inconsistent with evolving standards of
decency in a civilized society."
2003-AUG: Missouri court rules on case of 17 year old
murderer: "Christopher Simmons murdered Shirley Cook in 1993,
when he was 17 years [and five months] old." After a robbery attempt, he
bound and gagged the woman, and pushed her off a railroad trestle, causing here
death. Prior to the robbery, he told his accomplice that they could get get away
with murder because they were juveniles. He was convicted of first-degree murder and
sentenced to death." He argued that execution for a murder that he
committed at the age of 17 would be cruel and unusual punishment, and thus
prohibited by the 8th and 14th
amendment to the U.S. Constitution. He
asked the Supreme Court of Missouri to set aside his execution
and commute his sentence to life imprisonment without eligibility for
probation, parole or release. Judge Laura Stith of the Missouri court
"In the 14 years since Stanford was decided, a national
consensus has developed against the execution of juvenile offenders. No
state has lowered the age for execution from 18 to 17 or 16, five more
states have banned the practice of executing juvenile offenders through
legislative action and a sixth state has banned such a practice through
a judicial decision. Only six states have executed a juvenile offender
in the past 14 years. Opposition to the juvenile death penalty by
professional, social and religious organizations, both nationally and
internationally, has grown since Stanford. Similar to the
reasons set out in Atkins in regard to
offenders who are mentally retarded, neither retribution nor deterrence
provides an effective rationale for imposing the juvenile death penalty,
and the risk of wrongful execution of juveniles is enhanced....This
Court concludes that the United States Supreme Court would hold that the
execution of persons for crimes committed when they were under 18 years
of age violates the evolving standards of decency and is prohibited by
the Eighth Amendment to the United States constitution. This decision
applies retroactively to persons whose cases are on collateral review."
Judge Price dissented. He believed that the state Supreme Court lacks
the authority to overrule Stanford v. Kentucky.
Simmons' defense stressed the belief that juvenile executions are no longer a
moral option. They based their argument, in part, on the diminishing number of
states with laws that permit juvenile executions, and the rarity of such
sentences by juries.
At the time of the Missouri court decision in 2004-AUG:
"...a total of
sixteen states -- to which should be added federal civilian and military
courts -- require a minimum age of 18 for imposition of the death
penalty....If the twelve states and the District of Columbia that bar
the death penalty entirely are added, the combined total is twenty-eight
states that prohibit juvenile executions."
The State of Missouri appealed the case to the U.S. Supreme Court.
2004: U.S. Supreme Court decided to hear Roper v. Simmons: On
2004-JAN-26, the Supreme Court agreed to review the Missouri case described
above. The case is Roper v. Simmons, case no. 03-0633. The case
was heard in the fall of 2004.
One additional piece of evidence has emerged in recent years. Researchers
have determined that the human brain continues to develop during a person's teenage
years, and only matures at about the age of 20.
2005: U.S. Supreme Court declares execution of
juvenile murders unconstitutional: By the usual 5 to 4 vote, the U.S.
Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to execute a juvenile killer
-- i.e. a person convicted of murder who was under 18 years of age at the
time of the offense.
At the time of the ruling: "30 States prohibit the juvenile death
penalty, including 12 that have rejected it altogether and 18 that maintain
it but, by express provision or judicial interpretation, exclude juveniles
from its reach. Moreover, even in the 20 States without a formal
prohibition, the execution of juveniles is infrequent." 9 The latter states are: AL, AZ, AR, DE, FL. GA, ID, KY,
LA, MS, MO, NV, NH, NC, OK, PA, SC, TX, UT, and VA. This cancels the
sentences of 72 convicted murderers on death rows around the country. The
court also bars states from sentencing minors for future crimes.
The ruling stated that the "Court established the propriety and affirmed
the necessity of referring to 'the evolving standards of decency that mark
the progress of a maturing society' to determine which punishments are so
disproportionate as to be 'cruel and unusual'." The main basis for their
ruling is that the executions of juvenile criminals violate the U.S.
Constitution's Eighth Amendment which bans such punishment. They also cited
the 14th amendment. This decision should raise the opinion that many Western
democracies have had of the U.S. Some had severely criticized the U.S. for
this practice. 10
The Family Research Council reacted negatively to the
decision. They cited:
"... grave concerns such as states rights' and judges
being moral arbitrators. One disturbing part of the majority opinion is that
once again foreign courts and sentiment are cited to justify their decision.
Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for the majority, states, 'It is proper
that we acknowledge the overwhelming weight of international opinion against
the juvenile death penalty...The opinion of the world community, while not
controlling our outcome, does provide respected and significant confirmation
for our own conclusions."
The Family Research Council continued:
"Justice Antonin Scalia, in his brilliant dissent, highlights the hypocrisy of the Supreme
Court by pointing out that it tends '(t)o invoke alien law when it agrees
with one's own thinking, and ignore it otherwise, (and that) is not reasoned
decision making, but sophistry.' Justice Scalia cites examples of foreign
decisions that the majority ignores, including decisions that involve
outlawing abortion and funding of religious schools. There is a dangerous
trend in American courts with federal and state judges citing foreign
precedent to justify radical decisions, e.g., of sodomy (Lawrence v. Texas)
and gay 'marriage' (Goodridge v. Department of Health [in Massachusetts]).
The U.S. judicial system should not rely on selective citations of foreign
2005-MAR-18: Condemnation of Court decision: The Fundamentalist Baptist Information Service
condemned the "foolish judges" of the Supreme Court for ruling that
it is unconstitutional for the state to execute murderers who are under 18
years of age at the time that they commit their crime. By tying their
decision to the views of society, Justice Anthony Kennedy revealed:
"that his authority is not the U.S. Constitution but the shifting sand of public
opinion. God established the death penalty for murder immediately after the
flood and it has never been rescinded....(Genesis 9:6)...No exceptions were
made for youth. In fact, the Bible specifically says that young rebels are
subject to death. 'For every one that curseth his father or his mother shall
be surely put to death...(Leviticus 20:9)'." 12
Public opinion polls:
The following polls indicate the problems that arise from Internet opinion
The Gallup Poll conducted a poll on 2002-MAY concerning the execution
of juvenile murderers starting. Results were:
26% favored execution.
69% opposed execution.
5% had no opinion. 13
N = 1,012. Margin of error is within 3 percentage points.
Vote.com conducted a similar public opinion poll on their website on 2002-AUG-31.
78% of voters favored execution. The rationale provided by
Vote.com was: "Murderers shouldn't be able to use age to limit
22% opposed execution. The rational was: "People who are too
young to vote, drink, or serve on a jury are clearly too young to face
N = 13,525. Although the margin of error was less than one percentage point,
the people who voted were self-motivated and are not necessarily a
representative sample of American adults. Comparing this poll's data with those
of the Gallup Poll would indicate that the Vote.com subjects do not represent a
typical sample of the American public. This is a good indicator of the
unreliability of Internet polls.