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Religious Tolerance logo

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in
Africa, The Middle East & Far East

Sources of additional information

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Sponsored link.

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Internet sources of FGM information:

bulletThe Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project has brochures, a forum and many essays online. See: http://www.fgmnetwork.org/
bulletAfrol.com has a "Women and Gender" section that deals extensively with FGM. See: http://www.afrol.com/
bulletRising Daughters Aware is an agency centered in California. "...the RDA provides free information and  services for FGM affected women, their physicians, other health care providers,  social workers, counselors and attorneys." See: http://www.fgm.org/  (This site appears to be offline, However it remains registered to a group in California and may be reactivated in the future).
bulletThe Feminist Majority Foundation has a site called "Feminist News Stories on Female Genital Mutilation" which carries current news on FGM. See: http://www.feminist.org/ and use their search facility with the phrase "female genital mutilation"
bulletThe Egyptian Task Force on FGM was formed in 1994 from a number of Egyptian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) See: http://www.ncpd.org.eg/ and use their search facility with the phrase "female genital mutilation"
bulletLibrary Medi@ Project has produced a video on FGM. See: http://librarymedia.org/

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Books and articles on FGM:

bullet"Female Genital Mutilation: A joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement," WHO, (1997). Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store
bulletEmmanuel Babatunde, "Women's rites versus women's rights: A study of circumcision among the Ketu Yoruba of South Western Nigeria," Africa World Press, (1998). Review/order this book
bulletWaris Dirie & Cathleen Miller, "Desert flower: The extraordinary journey of a desert nomad," William Morrow, (1998). Review/order this book
bulletEfua Dorkenoo, "Cutting the rose: Female Genital Mutilation: The practice and its prevention," Minority Rights Publications, (1995). Review/order this book
bulletHanny Lightfoot-Klein, "Prisoners of ritual: An odyssey into female genital circumcision in Africa," Harrington Park Press, (1989). Review/order this book
bulletF. Kassindia, L. Bashir, "Do they hear you when you cry?" Delta, (1999). Review/order this book
bulletAlice Walker, et al., "Warrior marks: Female Genital Mutilation and the sexual blinding of women," Harvest Books, (1996) Review/order this book
bulletAlice Walker, "Possessing the secret of joy," Washington Square Press, (1997). Review/order this book

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Articles on FGM:

The African Women's Health Center, which is associated iwth Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston MA lists the following three papers on FGM:

bulletNawal M. Nour, MD, MPH, "Female genital cutting: clinical and cultural guidelines," published 2004-APR in Obstet Gynecol Surv.
bullet"Female genital cutting: a need for reform," published 2003-MAY, in Obstet Gynecol Surv.
bulletNawal M. Nour, MD, MPH, "Female circumcision and genital mutilation: a practical and sensitive approach," published 2000-MAR-01, in Contemporary OB/GYN.

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References to Male Circumcision

Removal of the penile foreskin is practiced among Muslims and Jews for religious reasons. It is also practiced widely in North America for traditional and medical reasons. There are Web sites which support and oppose this procedure. Two anti-circumcision home pages are:

bulletNOHARMM: National Organization to Halt the Abuse and Routine Mutilation of Males has a site at: http://noharmm.org
bulletCIRP: Circumcision Information Resource Pages is an information resource that leans towards non-circumcision. See: http://www.cirp.org/

One "pro circumcision" group is Circumcision Online News at:

bullethttp://www.geocities.com/ They have many links to similar sites.

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See our news feed on women's issues. It shows 20 current news items, and is updated every 15 minutes.

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Site navigation: Home page > World Religions > Islam > here

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Copyright 1998 to 2006 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally written: 1998-MAR-13
Last update: 2006-MAR-25

Author: B.A. Robinson

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