City ordinances and state laws concerning
transgender persons in North Carolina:
2016-FEB-22 until now: Charlotte City
protect LGBT community.
The state reacted by passing bill HB 2,
cities' human rights ordinances.
Massive economic retaliation against NC.
State law was repealed.
A popular transgender symbol.
2016-FEB-22: Charlotte City Council in North Carolina expanded their existing human rights ordinance:
The City Council already had a human rights ordinance that protected certain groups of people from discrimination by public accommodations (PA's).
PA's are companies that are in business to supply goods and services to the general public. They include stores, restaurants, bakers, commercial photographers, printers, bars, taxis, etc. People were protected on the basis of their race, religion, age, and gender.
During early 2016, the Council expanded the ordinance to also protect people on the basis of their:
Sexual orientation -- whether they have a heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual orientation. This is defined by whether they are sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex, the same sex, or to both sexes.
Gender identity -- whether they have a cisgender or transgender gender identity.
The vast majority of people are cisgender. They were identified as being either female or male at birth, and consider their current gender identity the same as their birth-identified gender.
A small minority of about 0.6% of the population are transgender. They were typically identified as being either male or female at birth but now identify as being of the opposite gender. For example, a MTF transgender person was identified as male as a newborn, recorded as male on their birth certificate, and consider themselves female today. A FTM is the opposite.
A small minority of transgender persons do not currently identify as being either male or female, or switch gender identity from time to time.
Reaction to the Charlotte city ordinance:
The Republican-controlled state government of North Carolina
passed bill HB 2, which had a major negative impact on the ordinances of Charlotte and other cities in the state. This generated intense negative reactions from sports associations, businesses, etc. outside the state. There are estimates that the cost of these reactions to the state amounts to hundreds of millions of dollars a year. This type of laws are often called "bathroom bills" because the component of the bills that have received the greatest attention is determines access to public washrooms by transgender persons. Typically, transgender persons would like to use the washrooms that correspond to their current gender identity. The North Carolina law requires transgender persons to use the washroom that corresponds to the gender on their birth certificate.
As of 2016-SEP, there were two similar state bills that had become law, in Tennessee and North Carolina. According to the Huffington Post, in late-2016-SEP, there were:
"... more than 100 active bills like this right now, across 22 states. They fall into a handful of categories — some are bathroom bills, some let judges refuse to marry same-sex couples, some let businesses deny services to LGBT people. ..."
On SEP-20, White House press secretary Josh Earnest said:
"Specific laws like this that seek to target and marginalize one small segment of the population is nothing less than mean-spirited. President Obama has talked on a number of occasions about the important progress our country has made with regard to civil rights. This is a good illustration that the fight for civil rights is not over."
Topics covered in this section:
Part 1: 2016-FEB: Charlotte City Council considers expanding a
human rights ordinance to
transgender persons, and transsexuals.
Part 2: 2016-FEB: Charlotte city council passes ordinance. Is "washroom fear" justified? State legislature passes HB 2 to overturn
Charlotte's ordinance. The bill also
exterminates human rights legislation throughout the state.
Part 3: 2016-MAR to JUN: HB 2's hidden effects.
The 4th Federal Court of Appeals rules in favor
a VA transgender student. Reactions to
Part 4: 2016-JUL/AUG:
NBA will move
their 2017 All-Star Game
from North Carolina. Injunction against HB 2 sought in
federal district court.
Part 5: 2016-AUG: The NBA decided to hold
their 2017 All-Star
Part 6: 2016-AUG: Video of the NBA decision. A review
of how people define gender.
Canadian exhibition unveils gender-
Part 7: 2016-AUG & SEP:
Canadian washrooms (Cont'd).
Federal District Court issued a preliminary
injunction against HB 2. NCAA pulls seven championships out of NC. HB 2 backfires.
Part 8: 2016-SEP & OCT: NCAA pulls seven championships out of North Carolina. Political impacts of HB 2. Colorado Christian University petition favors HB 2
Part 9: 2016-OCT: More about
Colorado Christian University petition. Political impact. Gubernatorial
Part 10: 2016-NOV/DEC: Democrat governor elected. Repeal of the Charlotte ordinance and state law HB2 fails, amid a fury of anger & mistrust.
Part 11: 2016-DEC to 2017-MAR:
Charlotte ordinance repealed.
State law HB2 also repealed in a move that completely satisfied nobody.
The following information source was used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyperlink is not necessarily still active today.
Jennifer Bendery & Michelangelo Signorile, "Everything You Need To Know About The Wave Of 100+ Anti-LGBT Bills Pending In States," Huffington Post, 2016-SEP-23, at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/