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Homosexuality and bisexuality


Ending job discrimination for Americans
of all sexual orientations & gender identities

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ENDA bills:

Various federal Employment Non-Discrimination Acts (ENDAs) had been proposed between the mid-1970's until 2009 to end discrimination against employees on the basis of their sexual orientation. The scope of the proposed bill in 2007 was temporarily expanded to include gender identity. The 2009/2010 bill and subsequent bills have included gender identity.

ENDA is basically an extension of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which made discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, gender or national origin illegal in certain limited cases. Since 1964, other laws have been passed to cover discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, age, and disability. 1

If passed into law, ENDA would add additional, equal protections to all American workers, in two additional ways:

bullet On the basis of their sexual orientation, whether they are heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, or gay.

bullet On the basis of their gender identity, whether they be cis-gendered, transgender or transsexual.

The bill would not cover companies with fewer than 15 employees, religious institutions, or the Armed Forces.

Public support should make a Federal ENDA bill a shoo-in for Congress:

  • During 2011-APR, a poll by fielded the CAP poll of likely 2012 voters found:
    • 73% of voters supported protecting the LGBT community from discrimination in the workplace.

    • 83% of Democrats, 74% of Independents and even 66% of Republicans supported workplace nondiscrimination laws for LGBT people,

  • During 2013-SEP, Equality PA stated that:
    • 80% of American adults including 70% of Republicans favor an end to workplace discrimination against LGBT people.

Even in the South, where support is weakest, a majority of adults have in favor. Essentially all of the opposition to ENDA comes from:

  • Fundamentalist and other evangelical Christians,

  • Members of the conservative wings of other religions, and

  • Social conservatives.

As of 2009-NOV:

  • 12 states had lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) - inclusive nondiscrimination protection.

  • These state laws covered almost 40 percent of Americans.

  • More than 100 localities had similar bylaws in place.

  • More than 150 companies on Fortune Magazines list of top 500 companies had enacted nondiscrimination policies protecting LGBT workers.

  • However:
    • In 38 states, a worker could be fired on the basis of their gender identity. 2

    • In 29 states, a worker could be fired on the basis of their sexual orientation. 3

During the summer of 2011, the Center for American Progress (CAP) reported that about 90% of voters mistakenly believe that there is already a federal law protecting the LGBT community from discrimination in employment. 4

During 2013-SEP, Equality PA stated that:

    • In 33 states, a worker can still be fired on the basis of their gender identity. 2

    • In 29 states, a worker can still be fired on the basis of their sexual orientation. 3

During 2013-JUL, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions passed the ENDA bill by a vote of 15 to 7. Surprisingly, three Republicans on the committee actually voted in favor of the bill. 5 Yet, by mid 2013-SEP, the federal ENDA bill had still not passed Congress.

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Topics in this section:

bullet Background: Quotes, Past types of oppression, Definitions
bullet Overview: Are ENDA laws needed? State laws enacted

bullet Federal Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA):
bullet An early ENDA bill (1995)
bullet Public opinion polls on prohibiting discrimination based on:
bullet Sexual orientation: 1995 to 2001

bullet Gender identity: 2001 to 2008
bullet Opposition to ENDA bills (1990s); ENDA developments (1997 to 2002)
bulletStudies of employment discrimination against transgender persons
bullet 2007 ENDA bill: HR 2015
bullet Background of the ENDA bill

bullet Progress of the ENDA bill

bullet Support for ENDA. including public opinion polls

bullet Opposition and misinformation about ENDA
bullet2009 to now: ENDA bill: HR 3017 << Currently active, sort of
bullet Basic information about the bill

bullet ENDA bill reintroduced in the House
bullet Review, bill introduced, status, hearing, testimony

bullet More testimony

bullet ENDA bill reintroduced in the Senate


Support, opposition, and inactivity on the ENDA bill:

bullet Other developments: 1998 Presidential action; Year 2000 Lexington KY case.

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Reference used:

  1. "Civil Rights Act of 1964," Wikipedia, as modified on 2009-AUG-05, at:
  2. "Inclusive ENDA Introduced! Urge Your Senators to Support Crucial Legislation," Transgender Legal Defense & Education fund, 2009-AUG, at:
  3. "ENDA is heating up - act now," Email, The Task Force Action Fund, 2009-NOV-03, at:
  4. "Polling Shows Strong Support for ENDA," Freedom to Work, undated, at:
  5. Jennifer Bendery, "Employment Non-Discrimination Act Passes Senate Committee," Huffington Post, 2013-JUL-10, at:

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Copyright 1997 to 2013 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Hyperlinks last checked: 2000-MAY-12
Latest update: 2013-SEP-16
Author: B.A. Robinson

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