This is the first of three basic lifestyles open to homosexuals (and
for that matter, for heterosexuals and homosexuals). The Bible contains a few references to celibacy:
Genesis 2:18: God is recorded as saying: "It is not good
that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him."
As noted above, God created Adam and Eve as heterosexuals of different
genders, so that they could support each other in a fulfilling, loving
relationship, and procreate and fill the earth with humans. Currently,
about 5% of humans become homosexual adults. Since gays and
lesbians are equally capable of forming long-lasting, sexually active, supportive,
loving relationships, one could infer that the intent of God is that they
also should form this type of bond. That would imply that celibacy is not
a good life style for a persons with either a heterosexual or homosexual
Matthew 19:10-12: Jesus is recorded as promoting celibacy, but
those who can handle it.
1 Corinthians 7:1-2, and 7:7-9: Paul writes that celibacy is a
preferred choice over marriage. His opinion might have been influenced by his belief
that the end of the world was coming in the immediate future. He gave
heterosexual marriage is an option for those who would otherwise burn with
sexual lust. He appears to have given no consideration to homosexual
marriage. He was probably unaware of loving, committed homosexual
1 Timothy 4:1-3: Although this epistle states that it was
written by Paul, liberal theologians generally believe that 1 and 2
Timothy were written by unknown author(s), some 35 to 85 years after Paul's
death. In this passage, the anonymous author condemns other branches of the Christian
movement, probably Gnostic Christianity. He is critical of their beliefs
and practices, including their requirement that their members remain
Revelation 14:1-5: This passagediscusses 144,000 singers during the
end times, who seem to be given an elevated
status because they are virgins who were "undefiled with
women." They follow Jesus wherever he goes. "And in their mouth was
found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God."
The implication is that sexual activity pollutes individuals. The
anti-sexual message of Revelation seems out of sync with the rest of the
Bible. But then, so is the portrayal of God as a wrathful, hateful,
vindictive deity bent on revenge which is seen throughout the book. These
may have been the themes in Revelation that caused Martin Luther to reject
the book, and relegate it to the appendix (along with James) in
his German translation of the Bible.
It would seem that the Bible's message is that most people are happiest in a
loving, supportive, committed relationship. However, if a person can handle
celibacy, then the Bible promotes it as an alternative and perhaps a preferred
Evaluation of option 2: The sexually-active single:
The Hebrew Scriptures seem to have taken a very dim view of unmarried women who
were sexually active:
A seduced, engaged woman:
Deuteronomy 22:23-24 states that if she engages in sexual behavior with
a man who is other than her fiancé, she and the man would be stoned to death.
Any woman pretending to be
a virgin: Deuteronomy 22:13-21 requires that any women who had been
presented as virgin brides, and could be proven to have engaged in intercourse
before being engaged or married, would be stoned to death.
Prostitutes: Leviticus 21:9
states that "the daughter of any priest, if she profane herself by
playing the whore" shall be burned alive.
There do not seem to be any comparable sanctions against males in the Hebrew
A man raping a woman:
Deuteronomy 22:25 states that if the woman was engaged, that the rapist
would be executed. If the woman was not engaged, he would only have to marry
her and give 50 shekels of silver to her previous owner: her father.
A man engaging in homosexual ritual sex in Pagan temples: Leviticus
20:13 calls for the death of both parties
Other passages from Hebrew Scriptures:
One of the Ten Commandments: Exodus 20:14 states: "Thou
shalt not commit adultery." This passage is sometimes cited as a
general condemnation of sexual activity by single people. However, it
actually refers only to a man engaging in sexual intercourse with a woman who
was either married or betrothed to another man.
Another Commandment: Exodus 20:17 says: "Thou
shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his
manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy
neighbour's." This might be interpreted as condemning sexual
activity by singles with a man's sons and daughters. Coveting is often a prelude to sexual activity. A man's
house, wife, slaves and children were
generally considered to be his property.
Passages in the Christian Scriptures:
There are 32 verses in the Christian Scriptures that contain the
word "pornea" in the original Greek. It is normally translated into
English as "fornication." It is derived from the Latin word fornix,
which meant a vault, or an arch. "The term also referred to a vaulted cellar
or similar place where prostitutes plied their trade." 5
According to the Strong's Concordance "pornea" means harlotry, including
adultery and incest. 6
However, most conservative Christian churches have greatly expanded the English
term "fornication." According to Christs Freedmen, it now includes sex
before marriage, "orgies, masturbation, oral sex, fetishes, anything to do
with pornography, 'improper' thoughts about the opposite sex, homosexuality, and
just about any other sexual sin you could think of. While some of these things
are sin...this is a gross misuse of the word fornication." 6
Even though many biblical references to fornication seem to
discuss adultery, incest and idolatry, it would appear that some condemn sexual
activities by single people.
The Bible appears to be strongly
opposed to sexual activities by singles. There are a number of reasons why the Bible
might have condemned type of behavior:
It leads to the rapid spread of sexually transmitted diseases
(STD). Recall that in biblical times, there were no effective methods of
preventing the transmission of STDs, as there are today.
STD's can lead not only to sterility, but to death. In biblical
times there were no effective treatments to cure STDs, as there are today.
Sexual activity by the vast majority of singles -- the
heterosexuals in the society -- will often lead to pregnancy, childbirth, and
single parenthood. Optimum raising of children in most cases requires two parents.
Sexual activity on the part of single women lowered their value
to their owners -- their fathers.
As described elsewhere, the Bible is silent about loving,
committed homosexual relationships. In 1st century Palestine, the
only same-sex behavior of which Paul was most likely familiar with were orgies
in Pagan temples, and sexual molestation of children and youth (often slaves) by
abusive male pedophiles. In 1 Corinthians 7:2, he wrote: "Nevertheless, to avoid fornication,
let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband."
(KJV). Those are fine alternatives to celibacy for a heterosexual man and
woman. However, they were not applicable for gays and lesbians. So, we have to
infer from passages on other topics what our belief and practice should be about
committed, same-sex relationships.
Genesis 2:18 describes God as saying: It is not good that the
man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him." This would seem
to imply that humans should form loving, permanent relationships. For
heterosexuals, this would be limited to partners of the opposite gender; for
homosexuals, this would be limited to spouses of the same gender.
Does not condemn sexual activity within a heterosexual committed
relationship, even when it is abusive and involves rape.
Is silent on SSM
Does condemn certain forms of abusive, blasphemous, and
non-consensual behavior, whether same-sex or opposite sex. Specific passages
involving these same-sex behaviors condemn rape, sex in Pagan rituals, and
Paul wrote about heterosexual ex-Christian men and women who went against their basic nature and engaging in
Pagan orgies. See Romans
1:26. One could argue that this passage would also prohibit
homosexual men and women from violating their basic nature and engaging in
The Bible contains many passages proclaiming the beauty of sex within a
loving, committed relationship. Most dramatic of these is the of Song of
Solomon. The Bible is silent on similar same-sex committed relationships,
probably because they were not known to exist by the authors of the Bible.
The first two chapters of Genesis stress that Adam and Eve and
the other life forms on earth were to be fruitful and multiply. In this way, the
world would be filled with life. That theme would seem to condemn same-sex
relationships, because they would not have produced children, in ancient times.
However, it is doubtful that this argument is still applicable today. One of
today's most serious problems is overpopulation. The world cannot supply its
current population with a decent standard of living. Couples having a high birth
rate is no longer an advantage; it is over-stressing the environment.
There are many types of formal relationships described in the
Bible, apparently without condemnation: the standard nuclear family, polygamous
marriage, levirate marriage, A threesome involving a man, woman and slave,
marriages involving concubines, a male soldier and a female prisoner of war, a
male rapist and his victim, and a forced marriage between slaves. It would seem
reasonable that if all of these forms of marriage were acceptable to the writers
of the Bible -- even though some of them involved rape and abuse -- then a
non-abusive, loving, homosexual committed relationship would also be acceptable.
The benefits of encouraging gays and lesbians to marry or form
other committed relationships can be observed today, in the form of increased
quality of life, reduced promiscuity, and social stability -- exactly the
benefits reaped by heterosexual marriages.
Many religious liberals feel that the freedom to marry the
person that they love should not be restricted on the basis of race, gender,
sexual orientation, or any other genetically determined factor.