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Lesbian, gay, & bisexual topics

Gay Marriages, worldwide:

Past and current activities concerning gay
marriages (a.k.a. same-sex marriages, SSM),
across the U.S. and the rest of the world.

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In this web site, the acronym "SSM" refers to same-sex marriage. This term is the most
accurate because it includes same-sex marriages that include one or two bisexuals.
However, our use of "gay marriage" improves search engines' access to this web site.

"LGBT" refers to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender/Transsexual community.

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Front Page, New York Times

Front page of the New York Times on Saturday, 2015-JUN-27, one
day after the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on same-sex marriage.
Two column headings say:
"Foreful Dissents From the Court And Nation"
Historic Day for Gay Rights, but a Twinge of Loss for Gay Culture"

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Current status.

As of 2015-NOV, marriage has become generally available to same-sex couples throughout the 50 states, and District of Columbia, and four out of five territories. The exception is American Samoa where most of the population are American residents, not American Citizens. As a result, not all decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court apply in that territory.

During 2016, there were still holdouts in a few counties where county clerks are valuing their faith group's religious beliefs above their oath of office, their promise to uphold the U.S. Constitution, and their obligation to obey the Golden Rule. They are refusing to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. This was not too serious a problem in practice because, in most or all cases, same-sex couples can simply travel to another nearby county within their state to pick up their license. By mid-2016, when this disclaimer was last updated, if there are any clerks still refusing to issue such licenses, they seem to be largely ignored by the media.

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The Most Rev. Katharine Jefferts Schori, the Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church, offers a thoughtful survey on marriage:

Bishop Schori discussed how marriage was viewed from biblical times until shortly after voters in California voted very narrowly in 2008-NOV to continue to restrict marriage in that state to one woman & one man:

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wedding rings Some current really "hot topics" about same-sex marriage (SSM) (a.k.a. gay marriage or marriage equality):

SSM appeared to be the most prominent religious conflict in the U.S. during most of 2015, surpassing even abortion access.

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Sponsored link.

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same sex marriage symbol Worldwide SSM status as of 2017-DEC:

Marriage equality -- creating the right for loving, committed same-sex couples to marry -- has become established in a growing number of countries. The Netherlands was the first during 2001. The U.S. Supreme Court legalized gay marriage across the entire country on 2015-JUN-26, and the 13 states that had banned it gradually followed suit.

Among major English speaking countries, only Northern Ireland has not taken this step. Public support for SSM is quite high in this country and debate is active there.

On 2017-DEC-07, the Australian Government was the most recent to legalize same-sex marriage, They had conducted a postal survey on gay marriage among all registered voters. An incredible 79.5% of eligible voters returned their survey cards. 61.5% favored marriage equality; 38.4% favored denying same-sex couples the right to marry. Couples there will be able to register their intent to marry shortly and be eligible to marry early in 2018.

same-sex marriage worldwide 16

Color coding: For same-sex couples:

  • Dark blue: Marriages can be solemnized now.
  • Blue: Civil unions or domestic partnersipes are available
  • Green: Marriages solemnized elsewhere can be recognized.
  • Orange: SSM will be able to register their intent to marry shortly and marry in 2018.
  • Gray: Countries that do not yet allow same-sex marriages.

Status of marriage equality as of 2017-DEC-08:

  • The following 27 countries have legalized marriage by same-sex couples. In order by year, they were:
    • 2001: The Netherlands.
    • 2001: Belgium.
    • 2005: Canada and Spain.
    • 2006: South Africa.
    • 2009: Norway and Sweden.
    • 2010: Argentina, Iceland, and Portugal.
    • 2012: Denmark.
    • 2013: Brazil and France.
    • 2014: England and Wales.
    • 2013: New Zealand and Uruguay,
    • 2014: Scotland.
    • 2015: Greenland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Slovenia, and United States (except for American Samoa)
    • 2016: Colombia
    • 2017: Finland (law was passed during 2014 and will be effective in 2017), Australia (effective in early 2018), and Austria (effective in 2019). 14

The media cannot quite agree exactly how many countries have attained marriage equality. This is because England and Wales are sometimes counted as one country and sometimes as two.

Northern Ireland remains the only large, developed, predominately English speaking country that continues to deny the right of same-sex couples to marry.

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Sponsored link

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Other aspects of same-sex marriage (SSM) discussed in this section:

SSM is very controversial. The central government in almost every country is responsible for defining marriage eligibility. However, in the U.S., marriage is defined at the state level. This means a total of 57 separate battles -- one in each of 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government and the five U.S. territories (three of which are in the Pacific Ocean, and two in the Atlantic). The current status is shown below.

At its peak, prohibiting same-sex marriage seems to have assumed greater importance recently among religious and social conservatives than even restricting women's access to abortion. Part of the opposition is due to beliefs promoted by some conservative faith groups about the nature of sexual orientation. Some common beliefs are:

  • That everyone is born heterosexual but that some people choose to become gay or lesbian later in life;

  • That homosexuality is an addiction similar to drug dependence or alcoholism. Once some people try same-gender sexual activity, they become "hooked"on it.

  • That children who are sexually abused by adults of the same gender are much more likely to become gay or lesbian during their teen or early adult years.

  • That adults who engage in same-gender sexual activity can become heterosexual through effort involving prayer and therapy;

  • That abusive pedophilia -- adults sexually molesting pre-pubertal children -- is much more common among gays and lesbians than among heterosexuals.

  • That children raised in families headed by a same-sex couple do not thrive as well as children raised by an opposite-sex couple.

All of the above are denied by numerous professional mental health organizations like the American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, etc. and by human sexuality researchers. Unfortunately, little or no dialogue is occurring among these associations and faith groups to resolve their differences. They remain far apart on fundamental understanding of sexual orientation.

Additional religious beliefs commonly found among conservative faith groups are:

  • That all persons who engage in same-gender sexual activity will spend eternity after death in Hell. This belief often causes great emotional pain to the LGBT community as well as parents of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender individuals.

  • That homosexual behavior is hated by God.

  • That if same-sex marriage becomes more common in the U.S. that God will retaliate at some point by causing one or more horrendous natural disasters as he did at Sodom and Gomorrah, and later during the time of Noah, with great loss of life. 2 Fear of God's punishment is a main motivator among many religious conservatives which causes them to strongly oppose SSM.

Many recent court rulings have determined that those states that have banned same-sex marriage through legislation and/or by amending their constitution have violated the equal protection and/or the due process clauses of the U.S. Constitution's 14th Amendment. These states can expect to have same-sex marriage eventually legalized by rulings of one of their federal District Courts because of these violations.

Since 2011, national polls have regularly showed that most Americans favor legalizing SSM. Support is increasing, and opposition is dropping, each by 1 to 2 percentage points/year.

Previous to 2012, referendums in two states terminated SSMs: California in 2008 and Maine in 2009. These votes temporarily prevented new SSMs. They were passed with about a 6 percentage point margin. The most recent referendums on SSM were held on 2012-NOV-06 to restore SSM in Maine, and legalize SSM in Maryland, and Washington State. All three states legalized SSM with about a 5 percentage point margin. Overall gain in margin over four years was about 11 percentage points.

Support for equal rights and benefits for same-sex couples appears to be accelerating. It is at least partly caused by a generational shift: The vast majority of teens support marriage equality. Most senior citizens still oppose marriage equality, but are leaving the voter pool because of disability or death.

A large and growing percentage of the adult population believes that marriage equality is inevitable.

An increasing number of religious and social conservatives are diverting their energy away from preventing same-sex marriage. They are working harder to establish the right of individuals, companies and churches to actively discriminate against the LGBT community without running afoul of state human rights legislation. They promote this in the name of religious freedom. But it is not religious freedom in the historical meaning of the term, which includes the freedom of belief, freedom to assemble, freedom of religious speech, freedom to proselytize, etc. It is a recently emerged meaning for religious freedom: the religiously-based freedom to oppress and discriminate against others. Few seem to realize that the ethic of reciprocity -- a.k.a. Golden Rule -- requires Christians and followers of other religions to do the exact opposite.

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One of many points of view:

"you are not oppressed" message

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Other topics covered in greater detail:

bulletIntroductory material:
bullet

Background material:       <<< Please read some of these essays first!

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History and current status of SSM and civil unions:

bulletHarms resulting from:

bullet The denial of marriage rights to same-sex couples

bullet Same-sex marriage itself according to some conservatives
 
bulletHealth benefits resulting from SSM

bulletQuotations showing the diversity of beliefs about SSM

bulletAdditional material:
bulletChanges, including re-definitions, of marriages since before biblical times

bulletWhy are couples not permitted to marry?
bullet The battle over interracial marriage in the U.S. Part 1   Part 2   Part 3

bulletWhy do some same-sex couples want to marry?

bulletDisagreements over whether same-sex marriage should be permitted
bullet Analysis of Family Research Council`s stance on SSM
bullet Arguments against SSM raised by the National Organization for marriage
bullet Allowing military chaplains to conduct SSM ceremonies
bullet Inside a "scary, society-destroying family" led by parents of the same sex
bullet Support for same-sex marriage by the National Association of the Deaf (NAD)
bullet A speech by Ed Fallon in opposition to a state DOMA law in Iowa

bulletHow do children fare with same-sex parents?
bullet One child with three legal parents: a Canadian court decision

bulletGovernments that recognize same-sex relationships

bulletCompanies that extend benefits to partners of gay/lesbian employees

bulletMarriage benefits that are denied to gay & lesbian couples

bullet A sampling of opinions by religious leaders and individuals
 
bulletAffects of Religion and race on attitudes towards SSM:
bullet Christian, Jewish and other religions' policies toward same-sex marriages and equal rights for gays

bullet The Bible and same-sex marriage

bullet Two aspects to marriage: civil and religious: should they be separated?

bullet Marriage and family forms in the Bible and now

bullet Reactions by the African American churches and community concerning marriage equality
bullet 2012: Resolution by the Southern Baptist Convention that same-sex marriage is not a civil rights issue:
bullet 2008: Article in Newsweek in support of SSM

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TV ads by the National Organization for Marriage opposing SSM:

bulletLaws in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world:
bulletLegal aspect of same-sex marriages

bulletU.S. court & legislative activity restricting same-sex marriage - DOMA laws

bullet The Nebraska DOMA law declared unconstitutional

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U.S. Constitutional amendments to ban SSM:

bulletAn interpretation of the U.S. Constitution as it applies to same-sex marriage

bullet Will SSM inevitably lead to decriminalizing polygamy?
 
bullet International declarations on the rights of LGBT persons
 
bullet Laws in other countries that oppress or protect LGBT persons
 
bulletPublic opinion polls:
bulletIn the U.S.:
bulletSingle polls
bulletRepeated polls:
bullet star On same-sex marriage
bullet On same-sex civil unions

bulletIn Canada:
bullet 1996 to 2002;
bullet 2003-JAN to AUG
bullet 2003-SEP to DEC
bullet 2004
bullet 2005 This is the year in which SSM was legalized across Canada
bullet 2006

bullet Anecdotal comments about SSM

bulletLegal developments affecting SSM, civil unions, etc. in the U.S.:
bulletLGBT news items 1996 to 2010

bulletThe status of governments' recognition of same-sex relationships as of mid-2005 with links to later developments

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Recognition that same-sex relationship seems to have reached a tipping point on 2011-FEB-23


bulletWithin Native American Nations:
bullet Cherokee Nation
bullet Coquille Nation

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Mid-2005-JUN: Status of marriage equality:
I
nter-faith, interracial, inter-ethnic marriages were recognized everywhere in the U.S. However, same-sex marriag
es were treated very differently. As a result of voter plebiscites, legislative activities, and/or court rulings, same-sex marriages had become legal and available in most states and not in others. Same-sex marriage had been approved by recent court decisions in some additional states, but many had been stayed pending appeals to higher courts. See the image below.

On 2014-OCT-06, the U.S. Supreme Court decided to not review four rulings that dealt with marriage equality that were issued by three U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal. This quickly added five new states to the places where marriage licenses are available to same-sex couples. It also set up six additional states where marriages should have been immediately made available. These are states that are under the jurisdiction of these same three U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal. Kansas and South Carolina. They initially resisted this precedent but were forced to comply by late 2014-NOV.

In those states where same-sex marriage was still not allowed, there were many lawsuits active attempting to attain marriage equality. There was at least case one in every state -- . Until same-sex marriage became available everywhere in the U.S., married same-sex couples had to be very careful where they lived and to where they traveled. A medical emergency could have become a life-or-death matter very quickly if it happened while they were one of the states shown below as red, orange or light blue.

map of U.S. with SSM status 13

The second latest state to attain marriage equality before the U.S. Supreme Courts major ruling on 2015-JUN-26 was Alabama on 2015-FEB-09. However, marriage licenses were temporarily not available there because of a dispute between state and federal courts. The final state to attain marriage equality before the High Court ruling was Nebraska on 2015-MAR-02, shown in bright blue above.

Captions for above graphic

As of 2015-MAR-03, the most recent changes in marriage status had involved three states that have changed from red (SSM banned) to black (SSM legal):

  • Kansas was 34th state to attain marriage equality on 2014-NOV-13. However, only some counties allow same-sex marriage.
  • Montana was 35th state on 2014-NOV-19.
  • South Carolina was 36th state 2014-NOV-20.
  • Florida was the 37th state on 2015-JAN-05.
  • Alabama was the 38th state on 2015-FEB-09.
  • Nebraska was the 39th state on 2015-MAR-02 (Shown in blue). A decision of a District Court has been appealed to the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals who might enforce a stay.

That left 12 states that still have not attained marriage equality.

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USA map

As of 2015-MAR-03 marriage equality has been attained in 40 locations, including 39 states and the District of Columbia. They were:

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington state, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming).

However;

  • The status of same-sex marriage in Missouri was in a state of flux. It was available only in St. Louis and Kansas City, MO. 

  • In Nebraska, the state has appealed the ruling of a federal District Court to the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals who might place a stay on the lower court ruling.

At least one lawsuit seeking marriage equality is active in each of the remaining 11 states which currently ban same-sex marriage as shown above.

The current state of same-sex marriage in the U.S. is very similar to to the situation regarding interracial marriages prior to a decision by the U.S. Supreme Court to legalize such marriages in across the entire U.S. in 1967.

The vast majority of Americans now believe that marriage equality is inevitable across the U.S. in the near future. There are signs that:

  • Non-profit groups who have been promoting marriage equality are beginning to shift their emphasis towards protecting the LGBT community from discrimination in employment, accommodation, etc.

  • Non profits who have been resisting marriage equality are now beginning to emphasize changes in local and state human rights legislation so that individuals and public accommodations will have the religious freedom to actively discriminate against same-sex couples. Such discrimination violates one of the main tenets of their faith -- the Golden Rule. However, this conflict is generally ignored and rarely discussed.

Status of same-sex marriage by U.S. state, district and territory:

bullet

Alabama 

bulletAlaska
bulletAmerican Samoa, Territory of
bulletArizona
bullet Arkansas
bulletCalifornia
bullet The Pursuit of equality, a documentary DVD
bulletColorado
bulletConnecticut
bulletDelaware
bulletDistrict of Columbia
bullet

Florida

bullet

Guam, Territory of

bulletHawaii
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Idaho. Including a discussion of the Hitching Post Chapel conflict

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Illinois

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Indiana 

bulletIowa
bulletKansas
bullet Kentucky
bulletLouisiana
bulletMaine
bulletMaryland
bulletMassachusetts
bulletMichigan
bulletMinnesota
bullet

Mississippi

bulletMissouri
bulletMontana
bullet

Nebraska

bullet Nevada
bullet New Hampshire
bullet

New Jersey

bullet New York
bullet New Mexico
bullet North Carolina
bulletNorth Dakota
bulletOhio
bullet Oklahoma
bullet Oregon
bulletPennsylvania
bullet Rhode Island
bullet South Carolina
bullet South Dakota
bulletTennessee
bulletTexas
bullet Utah
bulletVermont
bullet

Virginia

bullet Washington DC
bullet

Washington state

bullet West Virginia
bullet Wisconsin
bullet Wyoming

bulletIssuing of SSM marriage licenses in various states as of early 2004
bullet2004 to 2008: Early events in various states

As of 2015-MAR-03, same-sex couple were able to marry in 37 states and Washington DC. Over 70% of Americans live in a location that has attained marriage equality.

In four states, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee, federal District Courts had ruled in favor of marriage equality. A three-judge panel of the 6th U.S. Court of Appeals subsequently reversed their rulings by a close, 2 to 1, vote. During 2015-JAN, the U.S. Supreme Court accepted all four cases for appeal, and held hearings on the case. Obergefell v. Hodges, during 2015-APR-28. The high court is issued its ruling on 2015-JUN-26 which legalized same-sex marriage everywhere across the U.S. except for the Territory of American Samoa. As of 2015-NOV, the status of SSM in that territory is still unclear. Resolution may be attainable only through the territorial courts.


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Status of SSM elsewhere in the world:

As of 2014-DEC-01, eighteen countries have either legalized SSM or have passed laws to attain marriage equality at some date in the near future when laws become effective. They are: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, France, Iceland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Scotland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and Uruguay.

Mexico, and the United States are unlike other countries, in that marriage laws are defined by individual states. Some, but not all, state governments in these countries have legalized SSM.

bullet Canada: Ten provincial/territorial court cases and one federal government decision This is a big section!

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Outside North America:

As of 2017-DEC-08, 27 countries have legalized marriage by same-sex couples.

However same-sex couples were not able to obtain marriage licenses in Finland until 2017, or in Ireland until a few routine tasks are completed, or in Greenland until 2015-OCT-01.

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Argentina: SSM bill considered. SSM bill passes parliament

bullet Australia 
bullet Austria (being written)
bullet Belgium
bullet

Bermuda Part 1 Part 2

bullet Colombia
bullet Denmark Part 1 Part 2
bullet Finland
bullet

France

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Greenland

bullet India
bullet Ireland
bullet Israel
bullet Italy
bullet Mexico
bullet Netherlands
bullet Norway
bullet New Zealand
bullet Northern Ireland
bullet Portugal
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Scotland

bullet South Africa
bullet Spain
bullet Switzerland
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