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Reparative Therapy, Gay Affirmation
Therapy etc. for the LGBT community


Attempting to calm distressed gays,
or trying to convert gays into ex-gays.

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Dr. Robert Spitzer, referring to persons with a homosexual orientation, said:

"They have a choice whether to go into therapy, about whether they adopt a gay lifestyle, whether they tell their friends and their family. They don't have a choice as to whether their basic sexual orientation is gay or straight -- that they don't have a choice about."

Dr. Spitzer's response to a question posed Scientific American Mind magazine in 2004-FEB: "Do gays have a choice?" 7

Presumably to "adopt a gay lifestyle" means for a person to choose to be sexually active with member(s) of the opposite sex rather than to be celibate for the rest of their life, living without an intimate partner. 

Mental health therapies directed at at gays and lesbians:

The two main types of therapy or counseling directed at gays and lesbians -- and to a lesser degree -- bisexuals:

bullet Gay Affirmative Therapy (GAT) directed at helping gays and lesbians become content with their sexual orientation. We will only discuss this briefly.
bullet Reparative therapy (a.k.a. Conversion Therapy, Sexual Orientation Change Effort, SOCE, or Transformational Ministry) programs often imply that they can change a gay's or lesbian's sexual orientation. However, their programs are actually directed at changing clients' sexual behavior. Clients with a homosexual orientation are urged to remain celibate without an intimate partner for the rest of their lives. Clients with a bisexual orientation are urged to restrict their sexually active relationships to members of the opposite sex. Almost all of the essays in this section discuss these two paths.

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Topics on counseling and therapy in this section:

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Related essays & menus on this web site:

bullet Main menu about homosexual and bisexual orientation

bulletStatements by professional groups etc. about homosexuality.

bulletReligious beliefs of ex-gay and similar ministries about homosexuality

External link:

bulletMark Benjamin, "My gay therapy session:" A reporter pretended to be gay and received an introductory session of reparative therapy by a Christian counselor. The cost to "either turn straight or get significant relief" would be $14,560. See:
bullet"Reparative or 'Conversion' Therapy," Public Health, Boulder County Colorado, at:


  1. "Christian Ex-gay ministry hosts Chicago conference," Charisma. Online at Maranatha Christian Journal, at: 
  2. APA response was copied from a reader's Email
  3. Stuart Shepard, "Ex-gays protest APA," Focus on the Family, at:
  4. G.M. Herek, "Attempts to change sexual orientation," at: 
  5. "Aversion Therapy - Letter to the Royal College of Psychiatrists, " Outrage!, at:
  6. Joe Kort, "So you'd like to learn about Gay Affirmative Therapy (GAT) at: Kort has provided a list of 43 books on the topic.
  7. David Roberts, "Previously unreleased Spitzer video gives candid results," Ex-gay Watch, 2007-APR-05, at:

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Copyright © 1996 to 2015 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update: 2015-JAN-05
Author: B.A. Robinson

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