Introduction: When does personhood begin?
How do we proceed when we cannot agree?
What the pro-life and pro-choice movements disagree on:
The major differences between pro-lifers and pro-choicers can be expressed as two questions:
Question 1. "When does human personhood begin?"
|Most pro-lifers believe it happens at conception because that is when a
unique DNA first appears.|
|Some believe it happens very shortly after conception when the ovum first divides
and becomes a pair of cells. This is the first evidence that the pre-embryo is
||A case has been made, based on a Genesis 9:4 that personhood begins
when blood first appears in the pre-embryo at perhaps 18 days after conception.|
|Most pro-choicers say that personhood happens later in pregnancy. Some
say that it happens:|
|When the embryo loses its tail and looks vaguely human;|
|When the fetus' face begins to look fully human;|
||After 20 or 21 weeks gestation (measured from the time of the start of the woman's last period), a limit imposed by many state & provincial
|When the fetus is viable -- able to survive outside its mother's
body with current medical technology;|
||At about 25 weeks, when the fetal brain's higher functions are first
activated and the fetus attains consciousness;|
||When the fetus half-emerges from is/her mother's body. This is a
traditional Jewish teaching.|
||At birth, when the fetus is completely separated from her/his mother -- a
|When the newborn's umbilical cord is cut and she or he is
breathing as an independent, separate person;.|
|Some Aboriginal people worldwide believe that the newborn only becomes a human person when
he or she is named.|
||As in Part 1,above, Peter Singer believes that personhood is only
established weeks after birth. |
Question 2. "After personhood has begun, under which conditions is an abortion a moral choice?"
||The Roman Catholic church teaches that an abortion at any stage of pregnancy can never be a moral choice, unless it happens as an unintended side-effect of a
medical procedure that is required to save the life of a pregnant woman -- perhaps during the removal of uterine cancer or termination of an ectopic pregnancy.|
||A small minority believe that an abortion is never a moral choice, even to save the life of the woman.
Continuing pregnancy should be enforced by the state even if it results in
the death of the woman and child. This is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church. |
||Some would limit abortions to cases where it was needed to avoid a significant threat to
the woman's life.|
|Some would also allow abortions in cases where the woman's health was
very seriously at risk and/or the risk of permanent disability
|Some would allow abortions in cases where conception occurred after a rape or
as a result of an incestuous relationship.|
||Some assert that a woman has the right to an abortion, even though the
fetus she is carrying is perceived to be a human person.|
"How do we proceed if we cannot agree about when personhood begins?"
It appears impossible for religious leaders, philosophers, the medical
profession and the rest of the public to reach a consensus about when personhood
begins. How then should we proceed? What limitations,
if any, should the state place on a woman's choice to terminate a pregnancy? If
a woman, after consultation with her physician and perhaps with her spiritual
adviser, decides that her least worse option is to have an abortion, then under what conditions
should the state intrude and deny her that option?
Most pro-lifers would probably agree that if we are unsure, we
should err on the side of life. A visitor to this web site eloquently wrote:
In reality, 90% of all abortions are performed during the first three months of gestation.
An embryo is considered a fetus only after about the 3rd month of gestation. Thus a large percentage of the 3,000 abortions terminate the life of an embryo, not a fetus.
"If we are killing 3,000 fetuses a day that at least have the possibility of being human persons, shouldn’t we protect them just
to be sure? If a hunter sees something moving in a bush, he just doesn’t shoot it because it sounds like it could be a deer. He makes
absolutely sure it is a deer before he kills it. Just like we should be absolutely sure that human fetuses are not human persons
deserving all rights in society before we kill them. Since we probably will never be absolutely sure, we should not allow any
fetuses to be killed. What if society is wrong and they are in fact human persons deserving all rights in society. Then we would have to
accept that we have killed off over 43 million people."
||Most pro-choicers might agree that the alternative to abortion
access is enforced childbirth for every pregnant woman. They would argue that forcing her
to continue an unwanted pregnancy to childbirth is an unwarranted
intrusion into the private life of a woman, particularly for those
who believe that they are carrying only a potential human life and
not an actual human life.|
||Some would suggest that since no consensus exists about abortion
access that we should allow women to make up their own minds about
whether to terminate their pregnancy or not, after having been fully informed about the nature of the embryo or fetus. They might argue that a
woman's right to control her body and her fertility trumps any
consideration of the continued life of the fetus.|
||Others suggest that God places souls in even small embryos and that this causes them to be full human persons. Abortion is thus murder and should be totally
banned or at least severely restricted.|
||Many persons who are theists -- they believe in a personal God
-- would suggest that we simply assess the will of God through
prayer. Unfortunately, pro-lifers and pro-choicers have attempted
this and have opposing beliefs about God's response. From a pilot
study that we have completed, assessing
the will of God through prayer does not seem to be a reliable option. |
As more countries in the world allow women to have at least early abortions
if they wish, and as the cost of inter-state and international travel drops, the
question is becoming less important for many women. A state law forbidding elective abortions can be overcome if the
woman simply adds the cost of an airfare to another location with more liberal
abortion laws -- or none as in the case of Canada.
What is the most effective use of effort to reduce the number of abortions?
This is still another matter over which pro-lifers and pro-choicers differ in opinion:
- Many pro-lifers have invested their effort mainly to pass state and federal laws that discourage women from seeking abortions either through restricting access or placing hurdles in their way. Examples are:
- Laws prohibiting women under the age of 18 from having an abortion unless a parent has been notified or given permission.
- Stricter inspection controls on abortion clinics.
- Criminalizing the transportation of a minor across state lines to have an abortion.
- Creating crisis pregnancy centers masquerading as counseling centers to disseminate invalid information about abortion.
- Requiring that a woman be given an ultrasound in the hopes that it might make her bond with the embryo or fetus and decide to not have an abortion.
- Requiring that a woman be given information about the process of pregnancy and what is involved in an abortion -- information that is often criticized for its lack of accuracy.
- Hoping and praying for an increase in the number of strict constructionist justices on the Supreme Court in the hope that the court will overturn Roe v. Wade. That case resulted in the 1973 court ruling that legalized all early abortions across the U.S. If that decision were overturned, it would probably give each state the power to decide whether to give women access to early abortions.
These efforts have not been notably successful in that the number of abortions has not shown a long-term decrease in the U.S. Where the rate has varied, it has normally been associated with economic conditions, changes in sex education, availability of emergency contraception, and other factors.
- Many pro-choicers would also like to reduce the number of abortions. They note that about half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended, and that about half of all intended pregnancies are terminated by abortion. They reason that an effective method of reducing the number of abortions is to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies through better sex-education, greater awareness and use of contraceptives, including emergency contraception, etc. More information
- Francis Beckwith, "Is the unborn human less than human?,"
Copyright © 1995 to 2015 by Ontario Consultants on
Latest update: 2015-OCT-24
Author: B.A. Robinson