The fast of Ramadan:
concerns, activities, etc.
Ramadan (pronounced "rom-a-don"; a.k.a.
Ramazan) is the holiest period in the Islamic year.
It commemorates the ninth lunar month in the year 610 CE when Muslims believe that revelations began from
God, via the angel Gabriel, to the Prophet Muhammad in a cave. These revelations
in Arabic were memorized by Muhammad, and passed on orally to his followers. He died unexpectedly in 632 CE.
During this month, Muslims believe that the gates of Heaven are open, the
gates of Hell are closed, and devils are chained up in Hell so they cannot tempt
believers on Earth. Muslims believe that because this month has been blessed by
Allah, any good actions that they take during Ramadan will bring them a greater reward than at other times during the year.
During this month, almost all Muslims over the age of 12 are expected
to "abstain from food, drink and other sensual pleasures"
including smoking, gambling, taking oral medications, sexual activity, etc. The fast extends from the
first light of dawn until sunset. 1 This is the fourth of
the five pillars of Islam.
The month of Ramadan has historically begun with the day in which the crescent moon is first seen with human eyes. In recent years, Muslims in many countries are using astronomical calculation to determine the date of Ramadan from the time of the actual new moon.
The Islamic calendar contains 12 lunar months [a.k.a. synodic months], with each month consisting of the interval between two successive new moons. A synodic month is only 29.53 days, whereas a month in the Gregorian calendar averages about 30.44 days. So 12 synodic months is shorter than a tropical year [a.k.a. solar year] by about 13.7 days. 7
At the time this essay was last updated, the current Islamic year was 1438Â AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1438Â AH runs from approximately 3 October 2016 to 21 September 2017 and Ramadan began about 2017-MAY-27.
Since the timing of Ramadan is based on a lunar calendar, it starts about ten to twelve days earlier each year according to the Gregorian Calendar. During the early 2010's, it was occurring during summertime when the days are both the longest and hottest of the year. It is particularly onerous for many individuals.
The Qur'an states:
"O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed
to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint. ... Ramadan is the
(month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also
clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong). So
every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should
spend it in fasting ..." Chapter 2, verses 183 and 185.
The purposes, discipline, activities and health concerns of Ramadan:
"The fast is performed to learn discipline, self-restraint and
generosity, while obeying God's commandments. Fasting (along with the
declaration of faith, daily prayers, charity, and pilgrimage to Mecca) is
one of the 'five pillars' of Islam." 2 However, Muslims who
fall within one of the following categories may elect to not observe the
Children under the age of puberty.
People who are mentally incapacitated or not responsible for their
Travelers who are on journeys of more than about fifty miles.
Women who are menstruating.
Young children are encouraged to fast as much as they are able. 2
A full daytime fast can be very stressful for many people. Professor Saghir
Akhtar has written an online essay for the BBC with health and diet advice
during Ramadan. 3
Dr. Asim Padela, a Muslim and an emergency room physician at the University of Chicago Hospital, suggests that Muslims with health concerns should consult with their doctors and religious leaders to decide if they can safely fast. During 2013, Ramadan started on JUL-09. He said that because of the temperature and length of daylight:
"It is going to be difficult this year for many people, at least in this part of the world. ... Thereâ€™s a very granular level discussion that needs to occur at the level of what the patientâ€™s circumstances are, what their illness is, what their comorbidities (existing conditions) are and what their body, their physiology can tolerate and not tolerate."
A note for Muslims with glaucoma:
The Gatestone Institute reported:
"The International Glaucoma Association (IGA)Â warnedÂ Muslim glaucoma patients not to stop taking eye drop medication during Ramadan because stopping drops even for a short period of time can cause permanent loss of vision. Some Muslims have stopped using their eye drops during Ramadan, believing that using them will break their fast. IGA Development Manager Subhash Suthar said:
"We want to reassure the Muslim community that drops can be taken before dawn and after sunset (known asÂ SuhoorÂ andÂ Iftar), when food and drink can be consumed. We also suggest that patients close the tear duct when taking eye drops (known as punctual occlusion) as this means that fluid stays in the eye and does not drain into the throat and so cannot be tasted." 9
Dr. Michael Finkelstein, an associate medical officer at Toronto Public Health in Canada, said that people who are fasting need to make sure they drink enough fluids during the hours when the sun is down, and need to keep dehydration in mind. He said:
"July is a pretty hot month here. So they need to be aware of the early signs and symptoms of dehydration. Things like dizziness, light-headedness, headaches, intense tiredness, dry mouths and obviously the colour [sic] of their urine can get quite dark â€" those are indications that their fluid balance is in trouble. So if there are things that need to be done that donâ€™t have to be done during the middle of the day, try to move those to times during the day when itâ€™s cooler â€" early evening or early in the day so that you can avoid stressing your body at the height of the heat of the day." 7
Those who are temporarily unable to fast are expected to make up the missed
days at another time. Alternately, they can pay "fidah" (compensation) which involves a monetary donation of about $10.00 per day to feed the poor.
Muslims often engage in religious activities during Ramadan:
Some read the Qur'an, cover to cover.
Taraweeh prayers (a.k.a. the night prayers) are said every evening during Ramadan
in addition to the normal five prayers recited each day of the year.
Some Muslims spend their entire night praying to Allah.
Muhammad observed Al-I'etikaaf (a retreat) during the last ten days of
Ramadan. Some contemporary Muslims do the same by staying in the mosque
over a number of days. They store provisions in a corner of the mosque,
and engage in spiritual pursuits, such as prayer, recitation of the
Qur'an, glorification of Allah, studying the Hadith, etc. 5
"During the entire month of Ramadan the Lailatul Qadr is the most special
night for all the Muslims who fast. It is believed that Lailatul Qadr night
falls during the last 10 days of Ramadan during the odd days like 21st, 23rd,
25th, 27th or 29th. But many Muslims believe this "night of power" to be on 27th
as it occurred originally on that day." 4 This night
is believed to be when Muhammad first received the Qur'an.
How non-Muslims can help during Ramadan:
Companies, schools, hospitals, etc. can help their Muslim employees,
students and patients during the fast of Ramadan in a number of ways:
Since the employees are on a fast, they might find it more difficult
to handle strenuous tasks. Assignment of lighter duties in some cases
would undoubtedly be deeply appreciated by Muslim employees. School
administrator might allow Muslim students to be exempted from sports and
"Special consideration can be given to such things as requests
for vacation time, the need for flexible early morning or evening work
schedules and lighter homework assignments." For example, working
the day shift during Ramadan would enable the employee to break their
fast in the evening with their families, and to attend evening prayers.
"It is also very important that Muslim workers and students be
given time to attend Eid prayers at the end of Ramadan. Eid is as
important to Muslims as Christmas and Yom Kippur are to Christians and
"Hospital workers should be aware that injections and oral
medications [given to patients] might break the fast. Patients should be given the
opportunity to decide whether or not their condition exempts them from
A small token such as an Eid card or baked goods given to a Muslim
co-worker or friend during Eid ul-Fitr may also be greatly appreciated.
These cards cards are available from Muslim bookstores, or can be sent
from online sources. 6
"Muslim Fast of Ramadan Begins November 17: Fast offers
opportunity to learn more about Islam and Muslims," Council on
American-Islamic Relations, at:
Microsoft WORD program.