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Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) & Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID):

Three books and a bibliography on MPD and DID

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Please read the overview to MPD / DID before tackling this list.

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Three books for the general public:

One treats MPD as a real phenomenon; the other two considers it to be an iatrogenic (physician induced) hoax.

Dr. Deborah Berkley, "Safe Eyes: A story of healing."

This is a book by a counselor at the Madeline Center in Virginia. It discusses her first client, Grace Ann Hughes, who believed that she was viciously abused as a child, had repressed the memories of the abuse and had since created twelve alters. To read a review or purchase this book, go to the book section of the Madeline Center, at: http://www.madelinecenter.com/

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Richard Ofshe & Ethan Walters. "Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria," University of California Press, (1996).

The authors give two possible explanations about recovered memory: that recovered memory therapists have achieved a major breakthrough in the understanding of memory, or they have created an pseudoscience in which objective evidence is replaced by opinion, metaphor and ideological preference. The authors support the latter option. (Review paraphrased from one published by Booklist) Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store

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Mark Pendergrast & Melody Gavigan, "Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives," Upper Access, (1996).

"Pendergrast...chronicles how abuse memories often lead to memories of ritual satanic abuse. He... takes readers into an Alice-in-Wonderland world in which innocent incidents, such as the back rubs he gave his daughters, become starting points for 'remembered' abuse. He details how therapists, using 'The Courage to Heal,' lead their patients into 'memories' and encourage them to abandon their families without giving parents any chance to refute the accusations." From a review by Ilene Cooper of Booklist. Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store

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A psychiatrist's bibliography:

August Piper Jr., M.D. is a psychiatrist from Seattle, WA, and the author of a book which is critical of MPD/DID. 1 He wrote an article in Skeptical Inquirer magazine which criticized this form of therapy. 2 His article contained an extensive bibliography of articles and books which present both sides of the issue. It is reproduced below. Most of the references cite articles in professional journals:

bullet Aldridge-Morris, R. 1993. Multiple Personality: An Exercise in Deception. Hove, U.K.: Erlbaum.
bullet American Psychiatric Association. 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
bullet Atchison, M., and A. C. McFarlane. 1994. A review of dissociation and dissociative disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 28:591-599.
bullet Beitchman, J. H., K. J. Zucker, J. E. Hood, G. A. DaCoata, D. Akman, and E. Cassavia. 1992. A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect 16:101-118.
bullet Bifulco, A., G. W. Brown, and Z. Alder. 1991. Early sexual abuse and clinical depression in late life. British Journal of Psychiatry 159:115-122.
bullet Bliss, E. L. 1980. Multiple personalities: A report of 14 cases with implications for schizophrenia and hysteria. Archives of General Psychiatry 37: 1388-1397.
bullet -----. 1984. Spontaneous self-hypnosis in multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 7: 135-148.
bullet Bower, H. 1994. The concentration camp syndrome. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 28:391-397.
bullet Braun, B. G. 1984. Hypnosis creates multiple personality: Myth or reality? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 32:191-197.
bullet -----. 1986. Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
bullet -----. 1988. The BASK model of dissociation. Dissociation 1: 4-23.
bullet -----. 1989. Psychotherapy of the survivor of incest with a dissociative disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 12: 307-324.
bullet Brick, S.S., and J. A. Chu. 1991. The simulation of multiple personalities: A case report. Psychotherapy 28: 267-272.
bullet Bushnell, J. A., J.E. Wells, and M. A. Oakley-Brown. 1992. Long-term effects of intrafamilial sexual abuse in childhood. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85: 136-142.
bullet Caul, D. 1984. Group and videotape techniques for multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Annals 14: 43-54.
bullet Chodoff, P. 1963 Late effects of the concentration camp syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 8: 323-333.
bullet Confer, W. N., and B. S. Abler. 1983. Multiple Personality: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York: Human Series Press.
bullet Coons, P.M., E.S. Bowman, and V. Milstein. 1988. Multiple personality disorder: A clinical investigation of 50 cases. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 176: 519-527.
bullet Des Pres, T. 1976. The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps. New York: Washington square Press.
bullet Dinwiddie, S. H., C. S. North, and S. H. Yutzy. 1993. Multiple personality disorder: Scientific and medicolegal issues. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law 21: 69-79.
bullet Eisen, G. 1988 Children and Play in the Holocaust: Games Among the Shadows. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press.
bullet Eitinger, L. 1980. The concentration camp syndrome and its late sequelae. In Survivors, Victims, and Perpetrators: Essays on the Nazi Holocaust. edited by J. E. Dimsdale. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Press.
bullet Ellason, J. W., and Ross, C. A. 1997. Two-year follow-up of inpatients with dissociative identity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 154: 832-839.
bullet Esman, A. H. 1994. Sexual abuse," pathogenesis, and enlightened skepticism. American Journal of Psychiatry 151: 1,101-1,103.
bullet Eth, S., and R. S. Pynoos. 1994. Children who witness the homicide of a parent. Psychiatry 57: 287-306.
bullet Fergusson, D. M., M. T. Lynskey, and L. J. Horwood. 1997. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34: 1,365-1,374.
bullet Fifth Estate. 1993. Multiple Personality Disorder. videotape shown on November 9. CTV Canadian Television Network.
bullet Finkelhor, D. 1990. Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 21: 325-330.
bullet Frankel, F. H. 1993. Adult reconstruction of childhood events in the multiple personality literature. American Journal of Psychiatry 150: 954-958.
bullet Franklin, J. 1990. The diagnosis of multiple personality disorder based on subtle dissociative signs. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 178: 4-14.
bullet Fromuth, M. E. 1986. The relationship of childhood sexual abuse with later psychological and sexual adjustment in a sample of college women. Child Abuse and Neglect 10: 5-15.
bullet Frontline. 1995. Searching for Satan. Videotape shown on October 24. PBS.
bullet Ganaway, G. K. 1989. Historical versus narrative truth: Clarifying the role of exogenous trauma in the etiology of MPD and its variants. Dissociation 2: 205-220.
bullet -----. 1995 Hypnosis, childhood trauma, and dissociative identity disorder: Toward an integrative theory. International-Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 43: 127-144.
bullet Gold, S. N., D. Hughes, and L. Hohnecker. 1994. Degrees of repression of sexual abuse memories. American Psychologist 49:441-442.
bullet Greaves, G. B. 1980. Multiple personality 165 years after Mary Reynolds. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 168: 577-595.
bullet Harter, S., P. Alexander, and R. A. Neimeyer. 1988. Long-term effects of incestuous child abuse in college women: Social adjustment, social cognition, and family characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56: 5-8.
bullet Hendrickson, K. M., T. McCarry, and J. M. Goodwin. 1990. Animal alters: Case reports. Dissociation 3: 218-221.
bullet Hussey, D. L., and M. Singer. 1993. Psychological distress, problem behaviors, and family functioning of sexually-abused adolescent inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32: 954-961.
bullet Jones, D, P. H., and J. M. McGraw. 1987. Reliable and fictitious accounts of sexual abuse to children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2: 27-45.
bullet Kluft, R. P. 1983. Hypnotherapeutic crisis intervention in multiple personality. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 26: 73-83.
bullet -----. 1984a. Treatment of multiple personality disorder: A study of 33 cases. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 7: 9-29.
bullet -----. 1984b. An introduction to multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Annals 14: 19-24.
bullet -----. 1984c. Aspects of the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Annals 14:51-55.
bullet -----. 1985a. Childhood Antecedents of Multiple Personality. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
bullet -----. 1985b. Making the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder. Directions in Psychiatry 5:1-11.
bullet -----. 1987. An update on multiple personality disorder. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 38: 363-373.
bullet -----. 1988. The phenomenology and treatment of extremely complex multiple personality disorder. Dissociation 1: 47-58.
bullet -----. 1989. Iatrogenic creation of new alter personalities, Dissociation, 2:83-91.
bullet -----. 1991a. Multiple personality disorder. In American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry. Washington, D.C.: American Psychatric Press, 161-188, v. 10.
bullet -----. 1991b. Clinical presentations of multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14:741-756.
bullet -----. 1993. The initial stages of psychotherapy in the treatment of multiple personality disorder patients. Dissociation 6: 145-161.
bullet -----. 1995. Current controversies surrounding dissociative identity disorder. In Dissociative Identity Disorder: Theoretical and Treatment Controversies, edited by L. Cohen, J. Berzoff, and M. Elin. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, pp. 347-377.
bullet Krystal, H. 1991. Integration and self-healing in post-traumatic states: A ten-year retrospective. American Imago 48:93-118.
bullet Levitt, E. E., and C. M. Pinnell. 1995. Some additional light on the childhood sexual abuse-psychopathology axis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 43: 145-162.
bullet Lewis, D. O., and J. S. Bard. 1991. Multiple personality and forensic issues. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14:741-756.
bullet Lindsay, D. S., and J. D. Read. 1994. Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse: A cognitive perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology 8:281-338.
bullet Loewenstein, R. J. 1991. An office mental status examination for complex chronic dissociative symptoms and multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14: 567-604.
bullet Lynn, S. J., and M. R. Nash. 1994. Truth in memory: Ramifications for psychotherapy and hypnotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 36: 194-208.
bullet Malmquist, C. R 1986. Children who witness parental murder: Post-traumatic aspects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 25: 320-325.
bullet Mullen, P. E., J. L. Martin, J. C. Anderson, S. E. Romans, and G. P. Herbison. 1993. Childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry 163: 721-732.
bullet Nash, M. R., T. L. Hulsey, M. C. Sexton, T. L. Harralson, and W. Lambert. 1993. Long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Perceived family environment, psychopathology, and dissociation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61: 276-283.
bullet Ofshe, R., and E. Walters. 1994, Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria. New York: Scribners.
bullet Parr, L. E. 1996. Repressed Memory Claims in the Crime Victims Compensation Program. Olympia, Wash.: Department of Labor and Industries Public Affairs.
bullet Pendergrast, M. 1995. Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives. Hinesburg, Vt.: Upper Access.
bullet Peterson, G. 1990, Diagnosis of childhood multiple personality disorder. Dissociation 3: 3-9.
bullet Piper, A. 1994a, Multiple personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 164: 600-612.
bullet -----. 1994b. Treatment for multiple personality disorder: At what cost? American Journal of Psychotherapy 48: 392-400.
bullet -----. 1994c. Multiple personality disorder and criminal responsibility: Critique of a paper by Elyn Saks. Journal of Psychiatry and Law 22: 7-49.
bullet -----. 1995. A skeptical look at multiple personality disorder. In Dissociative Identity Disorder: Theoretical and Treatment Controversies, edited by L. Cohen, J. Berzoff, and M. Elin. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, pp. 135-173.
bullet -----. 1997. Hoax and Reality: The Bizarre World of Multiple Personality Disorder. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson.
bullet Putnam, F. W. 1989. Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford.
bullet -----. 1991. Dissociative phenomena. In American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v. 10, edited by A. Tasman and S. M. Goldfinger. Washington, D.C: American Psychatric Press: 145-160.
bullet Putnam, F. W., J. J. Guroff, E. K. Silberman, L. Barban, and R. M. Post. 1986. The clinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder: Review of 100 recent cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 47: 285-293.
bullet Putnam, F. W., T. P. Zahn, and R. M. Post. 1990. Differential autonomic nervous system activity in multiple personality disorder. Psychiatry Research 31: 251-260.
bullet Pynoos, R. S., and K. Nader. 1989. Children's memory and proximity to violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 28:236-241.
bullet Rosenthal, B. 1993. Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
bullet Ross, C. A. 1989. Multiple Personality Disorder: Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment. New York: Wiley.
bullet -----. 1990. Twelve cognitive errors aborn [sic] multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy 44: 348-356.
bullet -----. 1994. The Osiris Complex: Case Studies in Multiple Personality Disorder. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
bullet -----. 1995a. The validity and reliability of dissociative identity disorder. In Dissociative Identity Disorder: Theoretical and Treatment Controversies, edited by L. Cohen, J. Berzoff, and M. Elin. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Atonson, pp. 65-84.
bullet -----. 1995b. Current treatment of dissociative identity disorder. In Dissociative Identity Disorder: Theoretical and Treatment Controversies, edited by L. Cohen, J. Berzoff, and M. Elin. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, pp. 413-434.
bullet Ross, C. A, and P. Gahan. 1988. Techniques in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy 42: 40-52.
bullet Ross, C. A., G. R. Norton, and G. A. Fraser. 1989. Evidence against the iatrogenesis of multiple personality disorder. Dissociation 2:61-65.
bullet Ross, C. A., and V. Dua. 1993. Psychiatric health case costs of multiple personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy 47:103-112.
bullet Sarbin, T. R. 1995. On the belief that one body may be host to two or more personalities. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 33: 163-183.
bullet Schafer, D. W. 1986. Recognizing multiple personality patients. American Journal of Psychotherapy 15: 500-510.
bullet Simpson, M. 1995. Gullibles travels, or the importance of being multiple. In Dissociative Identity Disorder: Theoretical and Treatment Controversies, edited by L. Cohen, J. Berzoff, and M. Elin. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson pp. 87-134.
bullet Sofsky, W. 1997. The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
bullet Spanos, N. P. 1996. Multiple Identities and False Memories: A Sociocognitive Perspective. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
bullet Spiegel, D. 1995. Psychiatry disabused (ltr). Nature Medicine 1: 490-491.
bullet Spiegel, D., and A. W. Schleflin. 1994. Dissociated or fabricated? Psychiatric aspects of repressed memory in criminal and civil cases. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 42:411-432.
bullet Strom, A., S. 13. Reftsum, L. Eitinger. 1962. Examination of Nonvegian ex-concentration camp prisoners. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 4: 43-62.
bullet Taylor, W. S., and M. F. Martin. 1944. Multiple personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 39:281-300.
bullet Terr, L. C. 1979. Children of Chowchilla. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 34: 547-623.
bullet -----. 1983. Chowchilla revisited: The effects of psychic trauma four years after a school-bus kidnapping. American Journal of Psychiatry 140: 1,543-1,550.
bullet Tillman, J. G., M. R. Nash, and P. M. Lerner. 1994. Does trauma cause dissociative pathology? In Dissociation: Clinical and Theoretical Perspectives, edited by S. J. Lynn and J. W. Rhue. New York: Guilford, pp. 394-414.
bullet Vincent, M,. and M. R. Pickering, 1988. Multiple personality disorder in childhood. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 33: 524-529.
bullet Wagenaar W. A., and J. Groeneweg. 1990. The memory of concentration camp survivors. Applied Cognitive Psychology 4: 77-87.
bullet Wakefield, H., and R. Underwager. 1994 Return of the Furies: An Investigation into Recovered-Memory Therapy. Chicago: Open Court.
bullet Watkins, J. G., and H. H. Watkins. 1984. Hazards to the therapist in the treatment of multiple personalities. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 7:111-119.

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References:

  1. August Piper Jr., "Hoax and Reality: The Bizarre World of Multiple Personality Disorder." (1997) 
  2. Piper August, Jr., "Multiple personality disorder: witchcraft survives in the twentieth century," Skeptical Inquirer, 1998-MAN/JUN.

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Originally written: 2003-JAN-24
Last updated on 2007-NOV-18

Author: B.A. Robinson

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