Religious Oppression by Governments,
Universities, Schools & Religious groups:
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, lists brief descriptions of events
considered by some to be examples of religious discrimination by governmental,
social, and educational policies.
The ReligiousTolerance.org web site does not normally publish extensive
passages from other web sites. However, the following is a slightly edited wide-ranging list of
events that may be deleted from the Wikipedia web site at any time. Wikipedia's
policy is that "Lists
of miscellaneous information should be avoided" and relocated elsewhere.
Excerpt from Wikipedia:
- The federal Eagle Feather Law, which governs the possession and
religious use of eagle feathers, was officially written to protect then
dwindling eagle populations while still protecting traditional
Native American spiritual and religious customs,
of which the use of eagles are central. The Eagle Feather Law later
met charges of promoting racial and religious discrimination due to the
law’s provision authorizing the possession of eagle feathers to members of
only one ethnic group, Native Americans, and forbidding Native Americans
from including non-Native Americans in indigenous customs involving eagle
feathers—a common modern practice dating back to the early 1500s.
- Charges of religious and racial discrimination have also been found in
the education system. The dormitory policies at Boston
University and The University of South Dakota were once charged with racial and
religious discrimination when they forbade a university dormitory resident
from smudging while praying. The policy at The University of South Dakota
was later changed to permit students to pray while living in the university
- Religious organizations such as the Seventh-day
Adventist Church make it clear in their university catalog that they
have the right to discriminate on the basis of religion. They discriminate
against non-Adventists in hiring practices, disciplinary action, and
promotions. The Seventh-day Adventist Church has made many anti-Catholic
statements stating that the Bible identifies the Pope as the Anti-Christ.
Today, the church has softened these statements, explaining that they
interpret the biblical passages as referring to the papal institution and
not to a specific person. Recently, they have also taken measures against
church members who have publicly attacked the pope, especially those who
claim that it is in the name of the church.
- During 1995-1998, the province of Newfoundland in Canada had only Christian schools systems. There were four of them, Pentecostal, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist, and
inter-denominational (Anglican, Salvation Army and United Church). The
right to organize publicly supported religious schools was only given to these specific Christian denominations. Thus tax money used to support a selected
group of Christian denominations. The denominational schools could also
refuse admission of a student or the hiring of a qualified teacher on purely
- Quebec once had two school systems, one Protestant and the other
Roman Catholic. In 1998, this system was replaced with two
secular school systems: one French and the other English.
- In Greece since the independence from the Muslim Ottomans rule in the
1800s, the Greek Orthodox church has been given
privileged status. Only the Greek Orthodox church, Roman Catholic, some
Protestant churches, Judaism and
Islam are recognized religions in that cuntry. The Muslim minority
has alleged that Greece persistently and systematically discriminates against
- According to a Human Rights Practices report by the U.S. State
Department on Mexico:
"... some local officials infringe on religious
freedom, especially in the south".
There is conflict between Catholic/Mayan syncretists and Protestant evangelicals in the Chiapas region.
- In some U.S. jurisdictions legal restrictions exist which require a
religious test as a qualification for holding public office, for instance in
Texas an official may be:
"... excluded from holding office" if he/she does not
"acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being."
That is, one must believe in God in order to hold public office. Thus Atheists, Agnostics,
[Humanists], Buddhists, most
Satanists, some Unitarian
Universalists, Wiccans, other
Neopagans, and New Age followers, who do not believe in a conventional supreme being
would be excluded from public office. Such laws have been annulled by
federal Constitution; however, their existence is seen as oppressive by many
- In 2004, a case involving five Ohio prison inmates (two followers of
Asatru, a minister of the
Church of Jesus Christ Christian, a
Wiccan witch and a
Satanist). They protested the prison's
denial of access to ceremonial items and opportunities for group worship. The case was
brought before the Supreme Court in the case Cutter v.
The Boston Globe reported on the high court's 2005 decision in favor of the claimants. Among the denied objects was
instructions for runic writing requested by an Asatruer.
- Inmates of the "Intensive Management Unit" at
Washington State Penitentiary who are adherents of Asatru in 2001 were
deprived of their
Thor's Hammer medallions.
In 2007, a federal judge confirmed that Asatru adherents in US prisons have
the right to possess such a pendant. An inmate sued the Virginia
Department of Corrections after he was denied it while members of other
religions were allowed their medallions.
- Religious discrimination has also been documented in employment,
such as an
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) law suit alleging
discrimination against an Iranian-Muslim employee by the Merrill Lynch
company in US.
2017-MAY: An example of government restriction on religious freedom:
Public School administrators in Augusta, ME instructed teachers who are praying for their fellow teachers to not reveal it to others. This prohibition extended even to private conversations between teachers.
A male teacher at the school was having personal problems. Tony Richardson, a fellow teacher who went to the same church as he did, informed him that she would be praying for him. Months later, a complaint was lodged against Tony. The school sent her a "coaching memorandum" which said that:
"... [s]tating 'I will pray for you,' and 'you were in my prayers' is not acceptable -- even if that other person attends the same church as you."
The memorandum said that by making such a statement, she:
"... may have imposed some strong religious/spiritual belief system."
on the other teacher.
The Family Research Council (FRC) article stated:
"The root of such problems lies in the flawed understanding of religious belief revealed later in the 'coaching memorandum,' which stated, 'it is imperative you do not use phrases that integrate public and private belief systems when in the public schools.'
Whatever we are supposed to think of as a 'public' belief system (it's not clear), such thinking illustrates the silliness of the impossible public/private dichotomy when it comes to religion. In the minds of people thinking this way -- which includes not just the Augusta schools but multitudes of academics, government workers, and secular 'elites' -- religion is fine as long as it is not in the public square. They entirely miss the fact that we all choose beliefs -- some choose religious beliefs and others do not -- and we all bring our beliefs into all aspects of our lives, to some degree. To only exclude religious beliefs from public life is discriminatory -- against religion. 2
Extending the prohibition to private conversations between or among teachers appears to be a direct violation of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which guarantees the freedom of religious thought and speech.
The FRC article was titled: "School to Teacher: Don't Pray for your Colleagues." This is not particularly accurate. The school places no restriction on private prayer. They only restrict one employee from telling another that they are praying on their behalf.
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.
- "Religious discrimination," Wikipedia, as of 2008-JUL-09, at:
- Tony Perkins, "School to Teacher: Don't Pray for your Colleagues," Washington Update, Family Research Council, 2017-MAY-19, at: http://www.frc.org/
This article is licensed under the
GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article
Originally posted: 2008-SEP-04
Latest update: 2017-MAY-20
Posted by: B.A. Robinson