Human stem cells
Background information on
various types of stem cells
"We do not believe that human beings should ever be sacrificed
for the benefit of another. We thought we left that at Nuremberg more
than fifty years ago." Colleen Parro, spokesperson for the Republican
National Coalition for Life, 2001-JUN.
"I just cannot equate a child living in the womb, with moving
toes and fingers and a beating heart, with a frozen embryo sitting in a
lab somewhere." Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) on NBC's Meet the
||"Do I want to see again? Dance again? Hear like I once did? I do
not want those things at the cost of any living person and I consider
live embryos to be people." Testimony of a disabled woman at a Congressional
||"I am acutely aware of the ethical sensitivities that have been
expressed regarding the sources of stem cell lines. But, surely,
obtaining cells from legally obtained abortants or from early stage
embryos that are destined to be discarded in the course of IVF
procedures and making them available for potentially life-saving
purposes would be viewed as ethically permissible if not a moral
imperative." Paul Berg, Cahill Professor of Biochemistry, Emeritus.
"In embryonic stem cells may lie the key to healing within the
human body..." Yvette Cooper, Junior health minister, British
"Stem cell research holds the promise of hope
for 100 million people living with incurable diseases from diabetes to
heart conditions to Alzheimer's to Parkinson's, ALS, MS, and spinal cord
injury. It will affect the entire American family. I believe this is
why we find in this new survey such strong support
from people with such diverse religious and ethical beliefs."
Christopher Reeve, Chairman of the Christopher Reeve Paralysis
Foundation. He suffered a spinal cord injury in 1995, and died on 2004-OCT.
What are stem cells?
The human body contains 220 different types of cells such as blood, brain,
heart tissue, nerve cells, bones, etc. In 1998,
researchers at the University of Wisconsin and the Johns Hopkins
University in Baltimore MD found a way of harvesting stem cells from
embryos and maintaining their growth in the lab. Stem cells are a type of
primitive cell. Scientists have found ways of coaxing these
stem cells to develop into most types of human cells, Researchers are confident
that they will lead to treatments to many diseases: bone loss, broken
bones, brain damage due to oxygen starvation, severe burns, cancer (some
forms), diabetes, Lou Gehrig's disease, heart disease, hepatitis,
incomplete bladder control, Huntington's, leukemia, lupus, muscular
dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, Parkinson's, spinal cord
injuries, and stroke! The Coalition for the Advancement of Medical
Research estimates stem cell research shows promise to develop cures
and/or new treatments for 100 million Americans who currently suffer from a
wide variety of diseases and disorders.
Research is opposed by many pro-lifers, mainly Roman Catholics and
conservative Protestants. They feel that the embryos from which the stem
cells are often extracted are human persons. Many believe that the embryos have a soul. Since
the embryos are killed
when the stem cells are removed, pro-lifers view the extraction procedure as murder and
a type of Nazi-like medical
experimentation on human beings. They generally have no objection to
adult stem cells that
are extracted from an umbilical cord, a child's body or an adult's body,
if the appropriate consent is obtained.
There are two main ethical problems associated with embryonic stem cells. Both remain
very hot political matters:
||The first involves harvesting of stem cells from surplus embryos
prepared for in-vitro fertilization procedures in fertility clinics.
Hundreds of thousands of these are stored in clinics. The debate centers in
whether they can ethically be killed in order to harvest their stem cells.
||A second ethical problem is whether stem cells
lines which had already been created in the past from embryos, should be
used in research today. Here, the embryos have already been killed. The
only real matter to decide is whether federal funding should continue so
that the resultant stem cells, which are already growing in laboratories,
can be used.
These concerns have resulted in severe limitations on embryonic stem cell
research in the U.S. However, research elsewhere in the world has led to
techniques by which ordinary cells -- e.g. skin cells -- can be modified to
produce Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells) that have many of the
properties of embryonic stem cells without the ethical concerns.
6 More details
Embryos as a source of stem cells:
Embryonic stem cells are commonly extracted from unwanted, surplus embryos. These are
typically embryos that are created during medical procedures in fertility
help infertile couples conceive. When a woman undergoes in-vitro
fertilization, she is given medication that causes her to produce perhaps
two dozen mature ova. These are then fertilized, usually with sperm
provided by her husband. About three days later, each embryo is at the blastocyst
stage -- a collection of 4 to 10 cells.
This photograph shows a seven-cell embryo
which is fixed in position between two pipettes. Portions of six cells
can be seen; the seventh is out of view behind the remaining cells. Two
to five days after fertilization, two
to four embryos are implanted in the woman's womb, in the hope that one
or two will develop into a single newborn or twins. The rest are usually quickly
deep frozen in liquid nitrogen for potential future use by the couple.
Some are simply discarded.
These are sometimes called "pre-embryos." They have no brain, central
nervous system, mouth, heart, lungs, or other internal organs. They
have no organs to see, hear, touch, taste; they lack a body, head, arms,
legs; they have no self awareness, memory, thought processes, or
consciousness. They are smaller than a pin-prick. They consist of a number
of identical, undifferentiated cells containing human DNA. They do have the
potential to grow into fetuses and become newborn babies. Many, probably
believe that they are human persons with souls. Skeptics feel that souls
do not exist -- in embryos, fetuses, newborns, children or adults.
There is no simple way to dispose of the excess embryos. Occasionally,
a couple will to go back for a second try at achieving a pregnancy.
Two to four additional embryos are removed from storage, thawed out, and
implanted. But even when that happens, perhaps 16 of the couple's ova will
remain in storage. There is currently no simple way of handling the
||Fertile couples have children on their own, and have no need of
couples have a number of options:|
||They might have the clinic implant in the woman's uterus an embryo
formed from her partners sperm and either her ovum or the ovum of another woman.
Frozen embryos would only be needed if the original embryos did not
produce an embryo.
||The woman may be artificially inseminated with sperm from a stranger in order that the
resultant child will genetically be partly her own. There would be no need to
create embryos in the lab.
||The couple may accept a surplus frozen embryo formed by strangers' ovum
and sperm, and left over from in-vitro fertilization procedures.
This is called "embryo adoption." At this time, very few couples
find this alternative acceptable.
||If a woman without a male partner wishes to become pregnant, then
she will normally want to be artificially inseminated. Again, there is no need
for frozen embryo.|
The surplus embryos will almost all be eventually be destroyed, even if
it happens accidentally, decades in the future, due to equipment malfunction or human
Research on surplus embryos in government labs is currently suspended. But if it
were to be re-authorized, then researchers could remove some of these
embryos from liquid nitrogen storage, thaw them out, and allow them to
grow to the blastocyst stage. This consists of a collection of 100 to 300
undifferentiated cells, still lacking a brain, central nervous system,
mouth, and other components as described above. The stem cells would then be
extracted, killing the embryo in the process.
If an artificial womb were developed, frozen embryos could be thawed out
and allowed to develop into newborns. There are many more North American
couples willing to adopt babies than there are embryos in the medical
freezers. However, development of an artificial womb has its own unique
Some scientists reason that the unneeded surplus embryos should be used
to benefit humanity rather than be simply discarded. Many pro-lifers
regard these surplus frozen embryos as actual human persons with souls, deserving of
protection, even if there is no practical way to have them develop into a
fetus and later become a newborn.
As of mid-2001, there were over 110,000 frozen, stored surplus embryos
U.S. alone. 1 Some estimates in 2005 run as high as 400,000.
Is it practical to create embryo stem cells for therapeutic use?:
The answer, as of early 2009 is no.
In order to make embryo stem cells practical for therapeutic use, it would be
necessary to create a new stem cell line for each patient that needs treatment.
This is illegal in any government-funded laboratory in the U.S. It is being done
in places like England and Korea, where researchers are now world leaders in
At the current state of knowledge, creating a new stem cell line for mammals is difficult; for primates --
including humans -- it is particularly difficult.
However, iPS cells will probably be the wave of the future. They have many of
the same properties as embryonic stem cells without the serious deficiencies of
adult stem cells. 6
References used in the above essay:
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.
- William Walker, "Stem cell research row splits U.S.," Toronto Star, 2001-JUL-5, Page A1 & A11
Anon, "Human Embryo research/fetal experimentation," Focus on the Family, Policy statement dated 1997-DEC-15. See:
"Stem cell research: Medical progress with responsibility," Chief medical officer's expert advisory group on Therapeutic Cloning,"
Harold Varmis, Statement before a Senate appropriations subcommittee. See:
"Berg leads advocacy for stem cell research." Dr Berg is Cahill Professor of Biochemistry, Emeritus, and Director of the Beckman Center for
Molecular and Genetic Medicine at Stanford University Medical Center. He is also Chairman of the American Society of Cell Biology Public Policy
Committee and Co-Chairman of the National Research Council's Commission on Life Sciences and the Board on Biology. See:
Steven Ertelt, "IPS Cells, An Embryonic Stem Cell Research Alternative, Make
Major Advance," LifeNews, 2009-MAR-02, at:
Copyright © 1998 to 2009 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update: 2009-MAR-05
Author: B.A. Robinson