Twitter icon

Facebook icon

About this site
About us
Our beliefs
Is this your first visit?
Contact us
External links

Recommended books

Visitors' essays
Our forum
New essays
Other features
Buy a CD of this site
Vital notes

World religions
Christian def'n
 Shared beliefs
 Handling change
 Bible topics
 Bible inerrancy
 Bible harmony
 Interpret the Bible
 Beliefs & creeds
 Da Vinci code
 Revelation 666
Other religions
Cults and NRMs
Comparing Religions

Non-theistic beliefs

About all religions
Main topics
Basic information
Gods & Goddesses
Handling change
Doubt & security
Confusing terms
End of the World?
True religion?
Seasonal events
Science vs. Religion
More information

Morality & ethics
Absolute truth

Attaining peace
Religious tolerance
Religious freedom
Religious hatred
Religious conflict
Religious violence

"Hot" topics
Very hot topics
Ten Commandments
Abortion access
Assisted suicide
Death penalty

Same-sex marriage

Human rights
Gays in the military
Sex & gender
Stem cells
Other topics

Laws and news
Religious laws
Religious news


Religious Tolerance logo

Recovered memories & recovered memory therapy (RMT)

A personal story of RMT.
A bibliography of articles

horizontal rule
Sponsored link.

horizontal rule

A book by a survivor of false memories of childhood abuse:

Image of book cover Meredith Maran, "My lie: A true story of false memory." Read reviews or order this book safely from online book store.

Hardcover, 272 pages, Jossey Bass, 2010-SEP. List price: $24.95. sells it for $16.47.

Review in the Boston Globe, 2010-SEP-21:

"In this terrifying, haunting, and controversial memoir, award-winning journalist Meredith Maran delves into the fascinating subject of the recovered memory movement.... Maran's not just shockingly honest, she's also funny. Her refusal to whitewash her own behavior, her fierce ability to expose all sides of the issue (she doesn't deny that horrific abuse does occur and should be punished), and her compassion for the abused as well as those still falsely imprisoned as abusers opens up a dialogue about memory, belief, and past- and present-day culture that is as riveting as it is important."

Reviews by individuals:

  • Anne Lamott, author of Grace (Eventually) and Bird By Bird: "Meredith Maran is a wonderful journalist and storyteller, profoundly honest, direct, witty, savvy and compassionate."

  • Elizabeth F. Loftus, co-author of Witness for the Defense and The Myth of Repressed Memory: "My Lie is the brave and riveting 'inside story' of the most devastating mental health controversy of the century. I couldn't put it down."

  • Kathryn Harrison, author of The Kiss and The Mother Knot: To admit sin is hard. To own a grave sin committed against a loved one is more difficult still. To be able to write about it with honesty and grace is extraordinary. My Lie by Meredith Maran tells a story no reader will -- or should -- forget.

horizontal rule

Australian government publication:

The Health Services Commissioner to the Minister for Health of the government of Australia published a 161 page draft report titled "Inquiry into the Practice of Recovered Memory Therapy" in 2005. It contains a "Literature Review" which contains journal articles, statements of professional mental health associations, books, etc. on the topic of recovered memory therapy (RMT), false memories, and related topics.

The bibliography covers material from 1972 to 2005, and thus covers the full history of the recovered memory movement:

  • from its beginnings,
  • its spread among mental health professionals and other counselors who honestly felt at the time that they were on the cutting edge of a new technology,
  • the first sluggish and belated concerns by professional associations,
  • the gradual disillusionment with RMT, and
  • its final near-abandonment by therapists and counselors in the late 1990s.

It is important to realize that some of the references which promote recovered memory therapy have been determined to be deeply flawed and rejected by the courts and experts in the field of human memory.

What seems to be underrepresented in the literature review -- and from the published material on RMT generally -- are extensive, long-term studies of the damage to individuals and their families of origin caused by the creation of false memories during RMT. Individuals have been emotionally disabled; some have committed suicide; their families have suffered terrible losses and in some cases have disintegrated.

horizontal rule

Literature Review:

Alpert, J.L., Brown, L.S., & Courtois, C.A. (1998). Symptomatic clients and memories of childhood abuse: What the trauma and CSA literature tells us. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 4, 941-995.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Therapies focused on memories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychological Association. (2004). Questions and answers about memories of childhood abuse.
American Psychological Association Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse. (1998). Final conclusions of the American Psychological Association working group on investigation of memories of childhood abuse, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 4, 933-940.
American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs. (1985). Scientific status of refreshing recollection by the use of hypnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 253, 1918-1923.
Anderson, J.R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261-295.
Anderson, M.C., & Green, C. (2001). Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control. Nature, 410, 366-369.
Anderson, M.C., Ochsner, K.N., Kuhl, B., Cooper, J., Robertson, E., Gabrieli, S.W., Glover, G.H., & Gabrieli, J.D. (2004). Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories. Science, 303, 232-235.
Andrews, B., Brewin, C.R., Ochera, J., Morton, J., Bekerian, D.A., Davies, G.M., & Mollon, P. (1999). The characteristics, context and consequence of memory recovery among adults in therapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 141-146.
Andrews, B., Brewin, C.R., Ochera, J., Morton, J., Bekerian, D.A., Davies, G.M., & Mollon, P. (2000). The timing, triggers and qualities of recovered memories in therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 11-26.
Atkinson R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence and J.T. Spence (Eds.). The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.
Australian Psychological Society. (2000). Guidelines relating to recovered memories. Melbourne Australia, Australian Psychological Society.
Bagley, C. (1990). Validity of a short measure of child abuse for use in adult mental health surveys. Psychological Reports, 66, 449-450.
Barnier, A.J., & McConkey, K.M. (1992). Reports of real and false memories: The relevance of hypnosis, hypnotisability and context of memory test. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 521-527.
Basden, D.R., & Basden, B.H. (1995). Some tests of the strategy disruption interpretation of part-list cuing inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 1656-1669.
Basden, D.R., Basden, B.H. & Galloway, B.C. (1977). Inhibition with part-list cuing: Some tests of the item strength hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 100-108.
Basden, B.H., & Basden, D.R., & Gargano, G.J. (1993). Directed forgetting in implicit and explicit memory tests: A comparison of methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19, 603-616.
Bass, E., & Davis, L. (1994). The courage to heal: A guide for women survivors of child sexual abuse (3rd ed.). New York: HarperCollins.
Begg, I., & White, P. (1985). Encoding specificity in interpersonal communication. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 70-87.
Bjork, R.A., & Bjork, E.L. (1996). Continuing influences of to-be-forgotten information. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 176-196.
Blaney, P.H. (1986). Affect and memory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 229-246.
Bootzin , R.R., Bower, G.H., Crocker, G.H., & Hall, E. (1991). Psychology today: An introduction (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bower, G.H. (1987). Commentary on mood and memory. Behavior Research Therapy, 25, 443-455.
Bower, G.H. (1992). How might emotions affect learning? In S.A. Christianson (Ed.), Handbook of emotion and memory (pp. 3-31). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brandon, S., Boakes, J., Glaser, D., & Green, R. (1998). Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 296-307.
Bransford, J.D., & Franks, J.J. (1972). The abstraction of linguistic ideas: A review. Cognition, 1, 211-249.
Bremner, J.D. (2002). The lasting effects of psychological trauma on memory and the hippocampus. http://www.lawandpsychiatry/html/hippocampus.htm
Bremner, J.D., Krystal, J.H., Southwick, S.M., & Charney, D.S. (1995). Functional neuroanatomical correlates of the effects of stress on memory. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 527-530. Check the page numbers
Bremner, J.D., Shobe, K.K., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (2000). False memories in women with self-reported childhood sexual abuse: An empirical study. Psychological Science, 11, 333-337.
Bremner, J., Southwick, S., Brett, E., Fontana, A., Rosenheck, R. & Charney, D. (1992). Dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam combat veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 328-332.
Brewer, W.F., & Treyens, J.C. (1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 207-230.
Briere, J., & Conte, J.R. (1993). Self-reported amnesia for abuse in adults molested as children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 21-31.
Brown, A.S. (1976). Spontaneous recovery in human learning. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 321-338.
Brown, A.S. (1991). A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience: A review and evaluation. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 204-223.
Brown, D. (1995). Pseudomemories: The standard of science and the standard of care in trauma treatment. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 3, 1-24.
Brown, D.F., & Endekov, Z. (2005). Childhood Abused: The Pandemic Nature and Effects of Abuse and Domestic Violence on Children in Australia. Melbourne: The Alannah and Madeline Foundation and La Trobe University.
Brown, D., Salmone, K., Pipe, M.E., Rutter, M., Craw, S., & Taylor, B. (1999). Children’s recall of medical experiences: The impact of stress. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 209-216.
Brown, D., Scheflin, A.W., & Hammond, D.C. (1998). Memory, trauma treatment and the law. New York: Norton & Co.
Brown, D., Scheflin, A.W., & Whitfield, C.L. (1999). Recovered memories: The current weight of the evidence in science and in the courts. The Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 27, 5-156.
Brown, R., & McNeill, D. (1966). The “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5, 325-337.
Bruck, M., Ceci, S.J., Francoeur, E., & Barr, R. (1995). “I hardly cried when I got my shot!” Influencing children’s reports about a visit to their paediatrician. Child Development, 66, 193-208.
Burke, D.M., MacKay, D.G., Worthley, J.S., & Wade, E. (1991). On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults? Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 542-579.
Canadian Psychological Association. (2001). Guidelines for psychologists addressing recovered memories. Canada: Canadian Psychological Association.
Catherall, D.R. (2003). How fear differs from anxiety. Traumatology, 9, 76-92.
Ceci, S.J., & Loftus, E.F. (1994). Memory work: A royal road to false memories? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 351-364.
Cheit, R.E. (1998). Consider this, sceptics pf recovered memory. Ethics and Behaviour, 8, 141-160.
Chiles, W.D. (1958). Effects of shock-induced stress on verbal performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56, 159-165.
Clancy, S.A., Schacter, D.L., McNally, R.J., & Pitman, R.K. (2000). False recognition in women reporting recovered memories of sexual abuse. Psychological Science, 11, 26-31.
Cohen, G. (1989). Memory in the real world. London: Erlbaum.
Coons, P.M. (1993). Misuse of forensic hypnosis: A hypnotically elicited false confession with the apparent creation of a multiple personality. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 1-11.
Cossins, A. (1997). Recovered memories of CSA: Fact or fantasy? Paper presented at Paedophilia: Policy and Prevention conference, University of Sydney, New South Wales.
Cozolino, L.J. (2002). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: Building and rebuilding the human brain. New York: Norton and Company.
Craik, F.I.M., Morris, L.W., Morris, R.G., & Loewen, E.R. (1990). Relations between source amnesia and frontal lobe functioning in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 5, 148-151.
Crime and Misconduct Commission (2003). Seeking justice: An inquiry into how sexual offences are handled by Queensland Criminal Justice System.
Dalla Barba, G. (1993). Confabulation: Knowledge and recollective experience. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10, 1-20.
Dallam, S.J. (2002). Crisis or creation: A systematic examination of false memory claims. Journal of CSA, 9, 9-36.
Davies, J.M., & Frawley, M.G. (1994). Treating the Adult Survivor of Childhood Sexual Abuse. New York: Basic Books.
Davis, G.M. (1988). Faces and places: Laboratory research on context and face recognition. In G.M. Davis & D.M. Thomson (Eds.) Memory in context: Context in memory (pp. 35-53). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Davis, L. (1990). The courage to heal workbook: For women and men survivors of child sexual abuse. New York: HarperCollins.
De Bellis, M.D., Keshavan, M.S., Clark, D.B., Casey, B.J., Giedd, J.N., Boring, A.M., Frustaci, K., & Ryan, N.D. (1999). Developmental Traumatology Part II: Brain Development. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1271-1284.
Deese, J. (1959a). Influence of inter-item associative strength upon immediate free recall. Psychological Reports, 5, 305-312.
Deese, J. (1959b). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22.
DeLuca, J. (1993). Predicting neurobehavioral patterns following anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Cortex, 29, 639-647.
De Rivera, J. (1997). The construction of false memory syndrome: The experience of retractors. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 271-292.
De Rivera, J. (2000). Understanding persons who repudiate memories recovered in therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 378-386.
Elliot, D.M. (1997). Traumatic events: Prevalence and delayed recall in the general population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 811-820.
Elliot, D.M., & Briere, J. (1995). Posttraumatic stress associated with delayed recall of sexual abuse: A general population study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 631-647.
Epstein, M.A., & Bottoms, B.L. (2002). Explaining the forgetting and recovery of abuse and trauma memories: possible mechanisms. Child Maltreatment, 7, 210-225.
Erdelyi, M. (1994). Hypnotic hypermnesia: The empty set of hypermnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42, 379-390.
Erdelyi, M.H., & Goldberg, B. (1979). Let’s not seep repression under the rug: towards a cognitive psychology of repression. In J.F. Kihlstrom & F.J. Evans (Eds.) Functional disorders of memory (pp. 355-402). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Estes, W.K. (1955). Statistical theory of spontaneous recovery and regression. Psychological Review, 62, 369-377.
Everly, G. S., & Lating, J. M. (1995). Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in post-traumatic stress. New York: Plenum Press.
Feldman-Summers, S., & Pope, K.S. (1994). The experience of “forgetting” childhood abuse: A national survey of psychologists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 636-639.
Femina, D.D., Yeager, C.A., & Lewis, D.O. (1990). Child abuse: Adolescent records vs. adult recall. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 227-231.
Fergusson, D. M. & Mullen, P. E. (1999). Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Evidence Based Perspective Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Fiore, E. (1989). Encounters: A psychologist reveals case studies of abductions by extra-terrestrials. New York: Doubleday.
Fish, V. (1998). The delayed memory controversy in an epidemiological framework. Child Maltreatment, 3, 204-223.
Fisher, C. (1945). Amnesic states in war neurosis: The psychogenesis of fugues. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 14, 437-458.
Frankel, F.H. (1993). Adult reconstruction of childhood events in the multiple personality literature. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 954-958.
Freckelton, I. (1993). Current legal issues in forensic psychiatry. In H. Strang and S.A. Gervill (Eds.). Homicide: patterns, prevention and control: Proceedings of the Australian Institute of Criminology Conference (12-14 May 1992). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Freckelton, I. (1997). Admissibility of false memory evidence: R v Bartlett [1996] 2 VR 687 per Winneke P, Charles JA and Southwell AJA. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 4, 241-244.
Freckelton, I., & Selby, H. (1993). Repressed memory syndrome and false memory syndrome evidence. In I. Freckelton and H. Selby (Eds.). Expert Evidence, (Vol. 1 looseleaf service). Sydney: LawBook Co.
Frederickson, R. (1992). Repressed memories: A journal to recovery from sexual abuse. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Freyd, J.J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Gaensbauer, T.J. (2002). Representations of trauma in infancy: Clinical and theoretical implications for the understanding of early memory. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 259-277.
Gara, M.A., Woolfolk, R.L., Cohen, B.D., Goldston, R.B., Allen, L.A., & Novalany, J. (1993). Perception of self and other in major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 93-100.
Garry, M., Loftus, E.F., & Brown, S.W. (1994). Memory: A river runs through it. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 438-451.
Gawenda, M., & Gurvich, V. (11 November 1995). Memories: Are they made of this? The Age (Melbourne, Australia).
Geiselman, R.E., & Glenny, J. (1977). Effects of imagining speakers’ voices on the retention of words presented visually. Memory and Cognition, 5, 499-504.
Gleaves, D.H. (1994). On “The reality of repressed memories”. American Psychologist, 49, 440-441.
Gleaves, D.H., Smith, S.M., Butler., & Spiegel, D. (2004). False and recovered memories in the laboratory and clinic: A review of experimental and clinical evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 3-28.
Glisky, E.L., Polster, M.R., & Routhieaux, B.C. (1995). Double dissociation between item and source memory. Neuropsychology, 9, 229-235.
Gold, S.N., Hughes, D.M., & Swingle, J. (1996). Characteristics of childhood sexual abuse among female survivors in therapy. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 323-335.
Gold, S.N., Hughes, D.M., & Swingle, J.M. (1999). Degrees of memory of childhood sexual abuse among women survivors in therapy. Journal of Family Violence, 14, 35-46.
Goldfield, A.E., Mollica, R.F., Pesavento, B.H., & Faraone, S.V. (1988). The physical and psychological sequelae of torture: Symptomology and diagnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 259, 2725-2729.
Gotlib, I.H. (1992). Interpersonal and cognitive aspects of depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 149-154.
Haaga, D.A., Dyck, M.J., & Ernst, D. (1991). Empirical status of cognitive theory of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 215-236.
Hall, J.M., & Powell, J. (2000). Dissociative experiences described by women survivors of childhood abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 184-204.
Hayne, H., & Rovee-Collier, C. (1995). The organization of reactivated memory in infancy. Child Development, 66, 893-906.
Herman, J.L., & Schatzow, E. (1987). Recovery and verification of memories of childhood sexual trauma. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 4, 1-14.
Hopkins, B. (1987). Intruders: The incredible visitations at Copley Woods. New York: Random House.
Hyman, I.E., Husband, T.H., & Billings, J.F. (1995). False memories of childhood experiences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 181-197.

horizontal rule

Sponsored link:

horizontal rule

Idzikowski, C., & Baddeley, A.D. (1983). Waiting in the wings: Apprehension, public speaking and performance. In G.R.J. Hockey (Ed.). Stress and fatigue in human performance (pp. 123-144). Chichester: Wiley.
Intelegen Inc. (2003). Memory – Theories and processes: brain wave entertainment technology.
International Society for the Study of Dissociation (2004). What is dissociation.
Jacobs, D.M. (1992). Secret life: Firsthand accounts of UFO abductions. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jacoby, L.L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513-541.
Jacoby, L.L., Lindsay, D.S., & Toth, J.P. (1992). Unconscious processes revealed: A question of control. American Psychologist, 47, 802-809.
Johnson, M.K. (1988). Discriminating the origin of information. In T.F. Oltmans & B.A. Maher (Eds.), Delusional beliefs: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 34-65). New York: Wiley.
Johnson, M.K. (1991). Reality Monitoring: Evidence from Confabulation in Organic Brain Disease Patients. In G.P. Prigatano and D.L. Schacter (Eds.), Awareness of Deficit After Brain Injury: Clinical and Theoretical Issues (pp. 176-197). New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, M.K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D.S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28.
Johnson, M.K., Kahan, T.L., & Raye, C.L. (1984). Dreams and reality monitoring. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 329-344.
Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C.L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review, 88, 67-85.
Jones, G.V., & Langford, S. (1987). Phonological blocking in the tip of the tongue state. Cognition, 26, 115-122.
Joseph, R. (2003). Emotional trauma and childhood amnesia. Consciousness and Emotion, 4, 151-179.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1979). Hypnosis and psychopathology: Retrospect and prospect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 459-473.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (2004). An unbalanced balancing act: Blocked, recovered, and false memories in the laboratory and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 34-41.
Kihlstrom, J.F., & Evans, E.J. (1979). Memory retrieval processes during post-hypnotic amnesia. In J.F. Kihlstrom & F.J. Evans (Eds.), Functional disorders of memory (pp. 179-218). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kinzie, J.D. (1993). Posttraumatic effects and their treatment among Southeast Asian refugees. In J.P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes (pp. 311-319). Plenum Press: New York.
Klein, R.M., & Doane, B.K. (1994). Psychological concepts and dissociative disorders. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Koutstaal, W., Schacter, D.L. (1997). Intentional forgetting and voluntary thought suppression: Two potential methods for coping with childhood trauma. In L.J. Dickstein, M.B. Riba & J.M. Oldham (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol.16, pp. II-55-II-78). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Lamont, L. (6 July, 2005). The sex abuse lies that ruined a family. Sydney Morning Herald (pp. 1). Sydney, Australia.
Lamprecht, F., & Sack, M. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder revisited. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 222-237.
Leary, K. (1996). Repressed memories in clinical practice. Women and Therapy, 19, 61-77.
Limb, J. (6 July, 2005). Controversy still surrounds repressed memory therapy. ABC Online.
Lindsay, D.S. (1994). Contextualizing and clarifying criticism of memory work in psychotherapy. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 426-437.
Lindsay, D.S., & Read, J.D. (1994). Psychotherapies and memories of childhood sexual abuse: A cognitive perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 281-338.
Loftus, E.F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, 48, 518-537.
Loftus, E.F. (1997). Creating childhood memories. Applied Cognitive psychology, 11, 75-86.
Loftus, E.F., Garry, M., & Feldman, J. (1994). Forgetting sexual trauma: What does it mean when 38% forget? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1177-1181.
Loftus E.F., & Palmer, J.C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585-589.
Loftus, E.F., & Pickrell, J.E. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720-725.
Loftus, E.F., Polonsky, S., Fullilove, M.T., & Thompson, M. (1994). Memories of childhood sexual abuse: Remembering and repressing. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 67-84.
Lynn, S.J., & Rhue, J.W. (1994). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.
Mack, J. (1994). Abduction: Human encounters with aliens. New York: Scribners.
Madakasira, S., & O’Brien, K. (1987). Acute posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of a natural disaster. Journal of Nervous and mental Disease, 175, 286-290.
Mak, A.J.W. (2004). Repressed memory therapy’s fiasco in the Netherlands: A brief history. .
Maley, J. (9 July, 2005). Long shadows from the past. Sydney Morning Herald (pp. 38). Sydney, Australia.
Matlin, M.W. (1998). Cognition (4th ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Matlin, M.W., & Stang, D.J. (1978). The Pollyanna Principle: Selectivity in language, memory, and thought. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
Mazzoni, G.A.L., Loftus, E.F., & Kirsch, I. (2001). Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events: A little plausibility goes a long way. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7, 51-59.
Meltzoff, A.N. (1995). Long-term infant recall. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 59, 497-515.
McDermott, K.B. (1996). The persistence of false memories in list recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 212-230.
McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M. (1985). Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 1-16.
McConkey, K.M. (2001). Hypnosis and recovered memory: Evidence-based practice. In G.D. Burrows, R.O. Stanley & P.B. Bloom (Eds.), International handbook of clinical hypnosis (pp. 97-112). New York: Wiley.
McNally, R.J. (2004a). Is traumatic amnesia nothing but psychiatric folklore? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 33, 97-101.
McNally, R.J. (2004b). The science and folklore of traumatic amnesia. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 29-33.
McNally, R.J., Lasko, N.B., Macklin, M.L., & Pitman, R.K. (1995). Autobiographical memory disturbance in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 619-630.
Mensink, G.J., & Raaijmakers, J.G. (1988). A model of interference and forgetting. Psychological Review, 95, 434-455.
Merskey, H. (1996). Ethical issues in the search for repressed memories. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 50, 323-335.
Meyer, A.S., & Bock, K. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? Memory and Cognition, 20, 715-726.
Mineka, S., & Sutton, S.K. (1992). Cognitive biases and the emotional disorders. Psychological Science, 3, 65-69.
Nasby, W. (1994). Moderators of mood-congruent encoding. Self-/other-reference and affirmation/nonaffirmative. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 259-278.
Neiderland, W.G. (1968). Clinical observations on the survivor syndrome. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49, 313-315.
Nelson, K. (1993). The psychological and social origins of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 4, 1-8.
Netherlands Health Council. (January, 2004). Executive summary.
Nickerson, R.S. (1984). Retrieval inhibition from part-set cuing: A persisting enigma in memory research. Memory and Cognition, 12, 531-552.
Nielsen, T.A., & Powell, R.A. (1992). The day-residue and dream-lag effects: A literature review and limited replication of two temporal effects in dream formation. Dreaming Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams, 2, 67-77.
Oakes, M.A., & Hyman, I.E. (2000). The changing face of memory and self. In D.F. Bjorklund (Ed.), False-memory creation in children and adults (pp. 45-67). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Painter, S. (2002). The bean patch. Australia: Flamingo.
Paivio, S.C. (2001). Stability of retrospective self-reports of child-abuse and neglect before and after therapy for child abuse issues. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25, 1053-1068.
Perry, B.D., Pollard, R., Blakely, T., Baker, W., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and “use-dependent” development of the brain: How “states” become “traits”.
Pezdek, K., & Banks, W.P. (Eds.). (1996). The Recovered memory/false memory debate. San Diego: Academic Press.
Pezdek, K., Finger, K., & Hodge, D. (1997). Planting false childhood memories: The role of event plausibility. Psychological Science, 8, 437-441.
Pezdek, K., & Taylor, J. (2000). Discriminating between accounts of true and false events. In D.F. Bjorklund (Ed.) False-memory creation in children and adults (pp. 69-91). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Porter, S., Yuille, J.C., & Lehman, D.R. (1999). The nature of real, implanted and fabricated memories for emotional childhood events: Implications for the recovered memory debate. Law and Human Behavior, 23, 517-537
Postman, L., Stark, K., & Fraser, J. (1968). Temporal changes in interference. Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 672-694.
Powell. M.B., & Thomson, D.M. (1996). Children’s memory of an occurrence of a repeated event: Effects of age, repetition and retention interval across three question types. Child Development, 67, 1988-2004.
Putnam, B. (1993). Dissociative phenomena. In D. Spiegel (Ed.), Dissociative disorders: A clinical review (pp. 1-16). Baltimore: The Sidran Press.
Rabinowitz, M., & Mandler, J.M. (1983). Organisation and information retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 9, 430-439.
Read, J., Perry, B.D., Moskowitz, A., & Connolly, J. (2001). The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: A traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry, 64, 319-345.
Reisner, A.D. (1996). Repressed memories: True and false. Psychological Record, 46, 563- 579.
Resneck-Sannes, H. (1995). A feeling in search of a memory. Women and Therapy, 16, 97-105.
Robinson, K.J., & Roediger, H.L. (1997). Associative processes in false recall and false recognition. Psychological Science, 8, 231-237.
Roediger, H.L., & McDermott, K.B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 803-814.
Roth, S., & Friedman, M.J. (Eds.)(1997). Childhood trauma remembered: A report on the current scientific knowledge base and its applications. Illinois: The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. New York: W.W Norton & Company.
Royal, S. (26 April, 2001). The question surrounding therapy and evidence of law. 7.30 Report.
Royal College of Psychiatrists. (1996). Council Report: Rape London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Rubin, L.J. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse: False accusations of “False memory”? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 447-451.
Ruiz-Caballero, J.A., & Gonzalez, P. (1994). Implicit and explicit memory bias in depressed and no-depressed subjects. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 555-569.
Rundus, D. (1973). Negative effects of using list items as recall cues. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 43-50.
Scaer, R.C. (2001). The neurophysiology of dissociation and chronic disease. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 26, 73-91.
Schacter, D.L., Harbluk, J.L., & McLachlan, D.R. (1984). Retrieval without recollection: An experimental analysis of source amnesia. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 593-611.
Schacter, D.L., Kagan, J., & Leichtman, M.D. (1995). True and false memories in children and adults: A cognitive perspective. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 411-428.
Schacter, D.L., Norman, K.A., & Koutstaal, W. (1998). The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 289-318.
Schaffhausen, J. (2000). Gone but not forgotten? The mystery behind infant memories.
Schooler, J.W. (1994). Seeking the core: The issues and evidence surrounding recovered accounts of sexual trauma. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 452-469.
Shaffer, R.E., & Cozolino, L.J. (1992). Adults who report childhood ritualistic abuse. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 20, 188-193.
Shobe, K.K., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (2002). Interrogative suggestibility and “memory work”. In E. Mitchell, J.A. Quas, & G.S. Goodman (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview (pp. 309-327). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sivers, H., Schooler, J. , & Freyd, J. J. (2002) Recovered memories. In V.S. Ramachandran (Ed.) Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, Volume 4. (pp 169-184). San Diego: Academic Press.
Spanos, N.P. (1986). Hypnotic behaviour: A social psychological interpretation of amnesia, analgesia, and “trance logic.” Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 93, 449-467.
Spanos, N.P., & Bures, E. (1994). Pseudomemory responding in hypnotic, task-motivated and simulating subjects: Memory distortion or reporting bias? Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 13, 303-310.
Spanos, N.P., Burgess, C.A., & Burgess, M.F. (1994). Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: The social construction of memories. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42, 433-446.
Spanos, N.P., Burgess, C.A., Burgess, M.F., Samuels, C., & Blois, W.O. (1999). Creating false memories of infancy with hypnotic and non-hypnotic procedures. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 201-218.
Spiegel, D. (1998). Consistency of memory among veterans of Operation Desert Storm. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1301.
Spiegel, D. (2003). Hypnosis and traumatic dissociation: Therapeutic opportunities. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4, 73-90.
Spiegel, D., & Cardena, E. (1991). Disintegrated experience: The dissociative disorders revisited. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 366-378.
Smith, S.M. (1988). Environment context-dependent memory. In G.M. Davies & D.M. Thomson (Eds.). Memory in context: Context in memory (pp. 13-34). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Smith, S.M. (1994). Theoretical principles of context-dependent memory. In P. Morris and M. Gruneberg (Eds.) Aspects of memory: Theoretical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 168-195). Routledge Press.
Smith, S.M., & Tindell, D.R. (1997). Memory blocks in word fragment completion caused by involuntary retrieval of orthographically similar primes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23, 355-370.
Steblay, N.M., & Bothwell, R.K. (1994). Evidence for hypnotically refreshed testimony: The view from the laboratory. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 635-651.
Taylor, C. (3 December, 2000). How I endured a living hell in jail for a crime that I didn’t commit. Sunday Mail (Brisbane, Australia).
Terr, L. (1994). Unchained memories. New York: Basic Books.
Terr, L.C. (1988). What happens to early memories of trauma? A study of twenty children under age five at the time of documented traumatic events. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 96-104.
Thomson, D.M. (1995). Allegations of childhood abuse: Repressed memories or false memories? Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 2, 97-105.
Thomson, D.M., Robertson, S.L., & Vogt, R. (1982). Person recognition: The effects of context. Human Learning, 1, 137-154.
Thomson, D.M., & Tulving, E. (1970). Associative encoding: Weak and strong cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 155-162.
Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tulving, E., & Thomson, D.M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352-373.
Valent, P. (1993). Child survivors. Australia: William Heinemann.
Valent, P. (1995). Documented childhood trauma (Holocaust): Its sequelae and applications to other traumas. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 2, 81-89.
van der Kolk, B.A. (1996). Trauma and memory. In B.A. van der Kolk, A.C. McFarlane and L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.
van de Kolk, B.A., & Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and explanatory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505-525.
van der Hart, O., & Nijenhuis, E. (1995). Amnesia for traumatic experiences, Hypnosis, 22, 73-86.
Van Husen, J.E. (1988). The development of fears, phobias and restrictive patterns of adaptation following attempted abortions. Pre and Perinatal Psychology, 2, 179-185.
Wagner, A.D., Schacter, D.L., Rotte, M., Koutstaal, W., Maril, A., Dale, A.M., Rosen, B.R., & Buckner, R.L. (1998). Building memories: Remembering and forgetting of verbal experiences as predicted by brain activity. Science, 281, 1188-1191.
Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (1994). Return of the furies: An investigation into recovered memory therapy. Chicago: Open Court.
Walker, W.R., Vogl. R.J., & Thompson, C.P. (1997). Autobiographical memory: Pleasantness and unpleasantness fade with time. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, 399-413.
Wambach, H. (1979). Life before life. New York: Bantam.
Weekes, J.R., Lynn, S.J., Green, J.P., & Brentar, J.T. (1992). Pseudomemory in hypnotized and task-motivated subjects. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 356-360.
Wessel, I., Merckelbach, H., & Dekkers, T. (2002). Autobiographical memory specificity, intrusive memory, and general memory skills in Dutch-Indonesian survivors of the World War II era. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 227-234.
Wheeler, M.A. (1995). Improvement in recall overtime without repeated testing: Spontaneous recovery revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 10, 733-744.
Williams, L.M. (1992). Adult memories of childhood abuse: Preliminary findings from a longitudinal study. The Advisor, 5, 19-21.
Williams, L.M. (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: A prospective study of women’s memories of CSA. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1167-1176.
Williams, L.M. (1995). Recovered memories of abuse in women with documented child sexual victimization histories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 649-673.
Yapko, M.D. (1994). Suggestions of abuse: true and false memories of childhood sexual trauma. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Yapko, M.D. (1995). Essential of hypnosis. New York: Brunner Mazel Publishers.
Young, W.C., Sachs, R.G., Braun, B.G., & Watkins, R.T. (1991). Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 181-189.
Yovell, Y., Bannett, Y., & Shalev, A.Y. (2003). Amnesia for traumatic events among recent survivors: A pilot study. CNS Spectrums, 8, 676-685.
Zaragoza, M.D., & Mitchell, K.J. (1996). Repeated exposure to suggestion and the creation of false memories. Psychological Science, 7, 294-300.

horizontal rule

Reference used:

  1. "Inquiry into the practice of recovered memory therapy: Draft report," Health Services Commissioner to the Minister for Health, Australia. (2005)

horizontal rule

Home >"Hot" religious topics and conflicts > RMT > here

or: Home > Religious violence > RMT > here

horizontal rule

Since this is a report of the Australian government, we have assumed that its contents are not copyrighted.
Originally posted: 2005-OCT-14
Latest update: 2010-OCT-06

line.gif (538 bytes)
Sponsored link

Go to the previous page, or to the "recovered memory therapy" menu, or choose:


Go to home page  We would really appreciate your help

E-mail us about errors, etc.  Purchase a CD of this web site

FreeFind search, lists of new essays...  Having problems printing our essays?

Google Page Translator:

This page translator works on Firefox,
Opera, Chrome, and Safari browsers only

After translating, click on the "show
original" button at the top of this
page to restore page to English.

Sponsored link: