"Who is 'the king of the north' mentioned in Daniel 11?"
An essay donated by Ewiak Ryszard
Some insightful Bible students noticed, the proof lies in the obvious
identity that exists between Daniel's "the king of the north" in the last days
and Ezekiel's "Gog" of the latter days. By comparing what is said about each of
them in the two prophecies, it is manifest that they can only be different
titles for the same being.
Ezekiel Chapter 38 and 39 = Daniel 11:45
- Their geographical position is the same. "Gog's" country is in the north
part in relation to the Holy Land; as it is written, "Thou shalt come from
thy place out of the north parts". "Gog" is therefore "the king of the
north", his place or country being there.
- Both of them are adversaries of Israel and invaders of the Holy Land.
The eleventh chapter of Daniel abundantly proves this in relation to "the
king of the north"; and of "Gog", Yahoueh said: "Thou shalt come up against
my people Israel, as a cloud to cover the land".
- The time they invade the land is the same. "The king of the north"
invades in the last days. Of "Gog" it is said: "It shall be in the latter
days, and I will bring thee against my land".
- The same peoples are named as components of their armies. The Libyans
and Ethiopians are allies with "the king of the north"; and in the
enumeration of Gog's forces, it says, "Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya with
Who is "Gog"? Which land is the land of "Magog"?
Some people think that "Gog" is the Devil. But does the context support this
idea? Ezekiel wrote that after "Gog's" last attack he will fall and then be
buried by the people. (Ez.39:4,11) So there is no need to prove that "Gog"
represents the Devil as we know that the devil does not have a body of flesh and
bone and has no need for a grave. Thus, in actuality, whom does "Gog" symbolize?
"Gog" is the chief prince of Meschech and Tubal. Meshech, the sixth son of
Japheth (Genesis 10:2) is the founder of a tribe (1 Chronicles 1:5; Ezekiel
27:13; 38:2,3). They were in all probability the Moschi people, inhabiting the
Moschian Mountains, between the Black and the Caspian Seas. In Psalms 120:5 the
name occurs simply as a synonym for foreigners or barbarians. "During the
ascendancy of the Babylonians and Persians in Western Asia, the Moschi were
subdued; but it seems probable that a large number of them crossed the Caucasus
range and spread over the northern steppes, mingling with the Scythians. There
they became known as Muscovs and gave this name to the Russian nation and its
ancient capital by which they are still generally known throughout the East"
(Easton's Bible Dictionary).
Many ancient sources have clearly identified "Magog" as referring to the "Scythians".
One of the earliest references to Magog was made by Hesiod, "the father of Greek
didactic poetry" who identified Magog with the Scythians and southern Russia in
the 7th century B.C. Hesiod was a contemporary of Ezekiel.
Josephus Flavius clearly identified Magog. "Magog founded the Magogians, thus
named after him, but who were by the Greeks called Scythians". (Josephus,
Antiquities, 1.123; Jerome, Commentary on Ezekiel 38:2)
The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that in the fifth century B.C. the Scythians
ruled from the Don River, in present southern Russia, to the Carpathian
Mountains in central Europe.
Philo, is another historian in the first century A.D. who identified "Magog"
with southern Russia.
Ancient authorities clearly identified the Scythians as the ancestors of the
present day Russians.
However, even without that information, the identity of "Magog" is not too
difficult to figure out. In Ezekiel 38:15, it says: "And thou shalt come from
thy place out of the north parts, thou, and many people with thee". The "north
parts" is literally the "extreme, or uttermost" parts of the north.
Who are "the kings of the north" and "south"? Who are the "kings" of this
Since the Prophecy was given in the third year of Cyrus (Daniel 10:1), the three
kings that were to "stand up yet", that is, "after him", were Cambyses II,
Smerdis the Magian imposter, Darius I Hystaspes.
The fourth king, Xerxes I, stirred up Persia against Greece, which he invaded
in 480 B.C. but failed to conquer. Since prophecy touches only upon important
events and characters, the remaining kings of Persia are omitted, and the
prophecy jumps over nearly 150 years to the time of Alexander the Great 336-323
"A valiant king", Alexander the Great, whose kingdom after his death was divided
into four parts.
1) Seleucus I - who began the Seleucid (Syrian) empire, from Turkey to India.
2) Cassander - who took over Macedonia (Greece).
3) Lysimachus - who took Thracia (between Greece and Turkey).
4) Ptolemy I - who ruled over Egypt.
After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C., the throne of Egypt fell to
Ptolemy I Soter, the son of Lagus, the king of the south.
"One of his princes", Seleucus I, Nicator ["the king of the north"] also rose to
power, and took over the region of Syria. He eventually became more powerful
than his former Egyptian ruler.
"The daughter of the king of the south" = Berenice II, daughter of Ptolemy II
"The king of the north" = Antiochus II Theos.
Two years after the marriage, Berenice's father (Ptolemy Philadelphus) died.
Antiochus restored Laodice and put away Berenice.
He was then poisoned by Laodice.
Berenice fled with her children to Daphne where she was killed.
A "branch of her roots" will come with an army. This was Berenice's brother,
Ptolemy III Euregetes, "the king of the south".
"The king of the north" is Seleucus II Kallinikos, son of Laodice who was
defeated in a later invasion of Egypt. He lost most of Asia Minor along with
losing to the military expansion of Ptolemy III who put his mother, Laodice, to
Verse 9: "And [the king of the north] will enter into the kingdom of the king of
the south, but will return to his own land". (literal translation)
Seleucus II, son of the deceased Laodice, sought revenge for the vengeance taken
by Ptolemy III. "Justin says that he fitted out a great fleet, which was
destroyed by a violent storm; and after this he raised a great army to recover
his dominion, but was defeated by Ptolemy, and fled in great terror and
trembling to Antioch" (Gill's Commentary).
His ["the king of the north"] sons = Seleucus III Ceraunus and Antiochus III the
"The king of the north" = Antiochus III, the Great.
"The king of the south" = Ptolemy IV Philopator.
Ptolemy IV defeated the much larger army of Antiochus III at the Battle of
Raphia in 217.
"The king of the south" = Ptolemy V Epiphanes.
"The king of the north" = Antiochus III.
Antiochus III gives his daughter Cleopatra I to Ptolemy V, in hopes of permanent
influence in Egypt.
Verse 14a: "And in those times many will rise against the king of the south".
At this time, many of the Egyptians began rebelling against the ruling Grecian
family and began rioting and defying them.
Verse 14b: "And the sons of the violent ones of your people shall rise up to
establish the vision, but they shall stumble". (LIT)
This verse speaks of the violent sons of Daniel's nation. Many commentators
suggest that these people will stand up against the king of the south, but this
text foretells that these people will lift themselves up to establish the
vision. They were called a violent people by Ezekiel who in this way described
them as shedders of blood. (18:10a) The word vision [in Aramaic chezev; in
Hebrew chazown] is used in the Book of Daniel e.g. in: 7:1,2,7,13,15;
8:1,2,13,15,17,26; 9:24; 10:14; 11:14. All of these visions prophecy of the
future persecution of God's nation, that would be fulfilled in the distant
future. (Daniel 8:17; 10:14)
What kind of violent people would lift themselves in the ancient time, to
fulfill the inspired visions and prophecies before their time? The First Book of
the Maccabees clearly indicates the Maccabees as being these violent people.
(1:54; 6:7) Until now, many commentators believe that the Maccabees fulfilled
the prophecies of the Book of Daniel. But Jesus said that the vision which
concerns the abomination of desolation and the persecutions of God's nation will
be fulfilled in the future. (Compare Matthew 24:15; Revelation 13:1-8)
Verse 11:16b "and he standeth in the desirable land, and it is wholly in his
After one hundred years, Palestine again changed hands. The Seleucid king,
Antiochus III, took control of Palestine c. 200 B.C.E.
Antioch III against the Roman Empire.
"Ruler" = Lucius Cornelius, the Roman general.
The Romans humbled him (191) at Thermopylae and again at Magnesia (190).
Subsequently, Antiochus was forced to campaign within his own lands to stop his
satraps from declaring themselves independent rulers.
"He shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found" = end of the period of
greatness for the Seleucid Empire. (Compare Revelation 18:21; Jeremiah 51:64)
"And stood up on his station hath one causing an exactor to pass over the honour
of the kingdom, and in a few days he is destroyed, and not in anger, nor in
"The king of the north" = Caesar Augustus. The first Roman emperor.
"The king of the south" not on the scene.
In 2 B.C., Augustus sent out "an exactor" by ordering a registration, or census,
most likely to learn the size of the population for purposes of taxation and
military conscription. Because of this decree, Joseph and Mary traveled to
Bethlehem for registration, resulting in Jesus' birth at that foretold location.
(Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-12)
Daniel didn’t prophecy that "the king of the north" would die "after a few days"
from this event, but would die in the undetermined future "after a few days". In
the end of July, in the year 14 A.D., August left Rome. He took a vacation in
his old age and health. On the 19th of August, after a short sickness, he
"passed away peacefully, not feeling any pain". While traveling in Campania,
Augustus died "in a few days", neither "in anger" at an assassin's hands nor "in
warfare", but after a short illness.
Many say that "the king of the north" is Seleucus IV Philopater, who sent out
his finance minister, Heliodorus to collect taxes. But Seleucus was murdered in
a conspiracy engineered by Heliodorus. It is said that the king here was to
however die a natural death (not one of anger or of battle). Therefore, this
writing does not conform to Seleucus IV. Also, verse 21 cannot carry over to the
rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Verse 21: "And in his place shall arise a despised. And they will not give him
the royal majesty. He will come in a time of peace and will seize the kingdom
"The king of the north" = Tiberius 14-37.
"The king of the south" not on the scene.
"The ruler of the covenant" = Jesus [Yeshua].
Augustus only chose him after more favored heirs had died.
The New Encyclopædia Britannica says, Tiberius
played politics with the Senate and did not allow it to name him emperor for
almost a month [after Augustus died]". He told the Senate that no one but
Augustus was capable of carrying the burden of ruling the Roman Empire and asked
the senators to restore the republic by entrusting such authority to a group of
men rather than to one man. "Not daring to take him at his word", wrote
historian Will Durant, "the Senate exchanged bows with him until at last he
accepted power". Durant added: "The play was well acted on both sides. Tiberius
wanted the principate, or he would have found some way to evade it; the Senate
feared and hated him, but shrank from reestablishing a republic based, like the
old, upon theoretically sovereign assemblies". Thus, Tiberius took hold of the
kingdom by means of duplicity.
Verse 22: "And the arms of the flood shall be swept from before his face, and
they will be broken, and also the ruler of a covenant".
In 15 A.D., Germanicus led his forces against the German hero Arminius, with
some success. However, the limited victories were won at great cost, and
Tiberius thereafter aborted operations in Germany. Instead, by promoting civil
war, he tried to prevent German tribes from uniting. Tiberius generally favoured
a defensive foreign policy and focused on strengthening the frontiers. This
stance was fairly successful. In this way "the arms of the flood" were
controlled and were "broken".
"Broken" too was "the Leader of the covenant" = Jesus [Yeshua]. (Compare Isaiah
55:4; Daniel 9:25, 27a)
Verse 23: "And after they join themselves to him, he will do guile, and he will
exalt himself, and will do strong by a few of the people".
The oath of loyalty bound the army and officials to the Tiberius.
"Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius, the consuls, were the first to swear
allegiance to Tiberius Caesar, and in their presence the oath was taken by Seius
Strabo and Caius Turranius, respectively the commander of the praetorian cohorts
and the superintendent of the corn supplies. Then the Senate, the soldiers and
the people did the same".
Those few people were the Roman Praetorian Guard, encamped close to Rome's
walls. Its proximity intimidated the Senate and helped Tiberius keep in check
any uprisings against his authority among the populace. By means of some 10.000
guards Tiberius remained mighty.
"In a time of peace he will come against [sense: will attack] the fattest
[sense: mighty] of the land, and he will do that which his fathers have not
done, nor his fathers' fathers: prey, and spoil, and substance, their possession
he will distribute. And against strongholds he will devise his schemes until the
"The king of the north" = Tiberius and next emperors.
"The king of the south" not on the scene.
The word "mashman" refers here to fattest [sense: mighty]. (Compare Ps.78:31 and
Because he was very suspicious, Emperor Tiberius, extended the law of laesa
majestas. Many senators were put to death on a charge of treason against the
emperor. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered
Aurelian (270-275) against Queen Zenobia of Palmyra ["the king of the south"].
The Palmyrene army occupied Egypt in 269 B.C.E. under the pretext of making it
secure for Rome. Zenobia wanted to make Palmyra the dominant city in the east
and wanted to rule over Rome's eastern provinces. Alarmed by her ambition,
Aurelian aroused "his power and his heart" to proceed against Zenobia.
Zenobia valiantly defended it, but without success. She and her son fled toward
Persia, only to be captured by the Romans at the Euphrates River. The Palmyrenes
surrendered their city in 272 B.C. Aurelian spared Zenobia, making her the prize
feature in his triumphal procession through Rome in 274 B.C. She spent the rest
of her life as a Roman matron.
Aurelian himself 'did not stand because of schemes against him.' In 275 B.C., he
set out on an expedition against the Persians. While he was waiting in Thrace
for the opportunity to cross the straits into Asia Minor, those who 'ate his
food' carried out schemes against him and brought about his "breakdown". He was
going to call his secretary Eros to account for irregularities. Eros, however,
forged a list of names of certain officers marked for death. The sight of this
list moved the officers to plot Aurelian's assassination and to murder him.
Daniel 11:26b. (Compare Daniel 9:26b)
"and his army will be flooded and many will fall down slain".
Decline and fall of the Roman Empire.
"The strength of Aurelian had crushed on every side the enemies of Rome. After
his death they seemed to revive with an increase of fury and of numbers".
"And both these kings, their hearts (will be) to do mischief, and at one table
(they) will speak a lie. But it will not succeed, for yet (the) finish to (the)
appointed time." (11:27, literal translation)
It certainly suggests that the verse does not concern to the ancient times. It
describes the end of times right before the appointed time. (Compare Daniel
Russia and England (from second half of the XIX Century).
Egyptian history dates back to about 4000 B.C., when the kingdoms of upper and
lower Egypt, already highly sophisticated, were united. Egypt's golden age
coincided with the 18th and 19th dynasties (16th to 13th century B.C.), during
which the empire was established. Persia conquered Egypt in 525 B.C.E, Alexander
the Great subdued it in 332 B.C.E., and then the Ptolemaic dynasty ruled the
land until 30 B.C., when Cleopatra, last of the line, committed suicide and
Egypt became a Roman, then Byzantine, province. Arab caliphs ruled Egypt from
641 until 1517, when the Turks took it for their Ottoman Empire. Napoléon's
armies occupied the country from 1798 to 1801. In 1805, Mohammed Ali, leader of
a band of Albanian soldiers, became pasha of Egypt. After completion of the Suez
Canal in 1869, the French and British took increasing interest in Egypt. British
troops occupied Egypt in 1882, and British resident agents became its actual
administrators, though it remained under nominal Turkish sovereignty. In 1914,
this fiction was ended, and Egypt became a protectorate of Britain.
Russia grew expanding its power over huge regions, and by the end of XIX century
Russia possessed territories from the mouths of the Danube and Visla in the
west, reached the Pacific Ocean in the east, began in the Euroasian tundra in
the north and had borders with Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and China in the south.
In 1907, an Anglo-Russian agreement divided Persia into English and Russian
spheres of influence, a large Russian sphere in the north, covering the most
valuable part of the country, a neutral sphere in the centre, and a smaller
British sphere in the southeast.
"And (he) ["the king of the north"] will go back (to) his land with great
wealth; and his heart (will be) against the holy covenant; and will act
effectively; and turned back to his own land." (literal translation)
History of Russia after World War II.
The passage contains enough details, which allow for a correct interpretation.
Daniel foretells here that "the king of the north" [Russia] will not only be
successful in WW II, but also that he returns to his land with a great amount of
goods. If only Hitler had listened to Mussolini and the Japanese, who in 1943
advised him to stop military actions, the prophetic detail would have never been
"and turned back to his own land".
The break-up of the Soviet Union and return to the country of Russian garrisons
(the liquidation of Russian military bases).
The prophecy of Daniel 11 is the key to understanding what is going to happen in
The latter statements Jesus' and Daniel's are alike.
Matthew 24:5,6 (Luke 21:8,9) = Daniel 11:27,28 = XIX, XX, XXI Century, before
the World War III
"Many for will come in the name of me, saying: 'I am the anointed'; and many
they will mislead." (Matthew 24:5, literal translation)
"He said, 'Watch out that you don't get led astray, for many will come in my
name, saying, 'I AM,' and, 'The time is at hand.' Therefore don't follow them."
(Luke 21:8, WEB)
"Don't be afraid when you hear of wars and revolutions; such things must happen
first, but they do not mean that the end is near." (Luke 21:9, GNB)
Matthew 24:7 = Daniel 11:29,30 = WW III
Matthew 24:15 = Daniel 11:31 = "trampling of Jerusalem" [the great tribulation
of Christian minorities; compare Revelation 11:2]
Matthew 24:29 = Daniel 11:40 = WW IV
"At (the) appointed time (he) will return, and will enter into (the) south."
1. Russian troops will be station abroad again.
2. "The king of the north" will come into the South.
"But will not be as (the) former or as (the) latter. For will come against him
(the) dwellers of coastlands of Kittim, and (he) will be humbled, and will
return." (literal translation)
1. The West will come against the Russia.
2. "The king of the north" will be humbled, and will return.
(Compare Matthew 24:7; Revelation 6:4)
1. The nations will trample "the holy city" [of those who belong to Christ]
forty-two months. (Compare Revelation 11:2,7; 13:5,7a; Luke 21:24b; Matthew
24:21,22; Daniel 7:25; 9:27; Isaiah 29:1-8,20-24; Matthew 13:40-43,49,50;
Ezekiel 13:8-16,20-23; 34:10; 2Thessalonians 2:8b; Isaiah 28:1-4,17-22; 6:13;
The religious organizations from among Christian minorities which Jesus compared
to "the weeds", will be "burned". (Mt.13:30) Yahoueh will protect the righteous
ones. (Re.11:1) "The wheat" will be put into "the storehouse" after the
tribulation – which means that "the sons of the kingdom" will become gathered
and unified at that time. They will shine as brightly as the sun after the
2. "The abomination of desolation" [the World Government] will be set up.
(Revelation 13:7b; Daniel 12:11)
Details of their future global religious persecution. (Compare Daniel 8:11,12;
Revelation 6:9-11; 12:15)
Russia before the World War IV. (Compare Ezekiel 38:7)
The World War IV. (Compare Luke 21:25; Isaiah 5:26-30; Matthew 24:29; Daniel
7:11; Revelation 13:3; Ezekiel 32:2-16; Habakkuk 1:5-17; Revelation 6:12;
Zephaniah 1:14-18; Joel 2:1-11,31, ASV)
Occupation of Israel. (Compare Ezekiel 39:23-29)
The triumph of Russia. (Compare Isaiah 10:12-15)
Russia again will attack Israel. (Compare Daniel 12:1; Joel 2:20; Isaiah
14:4-27; Habakkuk 3:3-16)
"Many will study, therefore understanding will be multiplied". (Daniel 12:4b)
What is the Bible's scenario?
1. Russian troops station abroad again. (Daniel 11:29a)
2. "The king of the north" becomes very aggressive and enters into the south.
3. The West opposes Russia. (Daniel 11:30; Matthew 24:7a; Revelation 6:4)
4. "The king of the north" is humiliated, and turns back. (Daniel 11:30). He
does not make the same mistake as Hitler did, he does not fight to the death and
this is why Russia is not occupied.
5. The World Government appears after that war which replaces the ineffective
UN. Its power gradually rises. (Revelation 13:1,2,7b; Daniel 11:31b)
6. Russia rebuilds its military power very fast and acts effectively on the
world scene. (Daniel 11:30b)
7. "Russia’s rulers pay attention to those "who forsake the holy covenant".
8. A man "of fierce countenance, and understanding ambiguous sayings" becomes
the president of the USA, and he begins to fight with Christian minorities.
9. There is a tribulation of "Jerusalem" = it is a tribulation of Christian
minorities, which lasts 42 month’s. (Daniel 11:31a; Matthew 24:15; Revelation
13:5-7a; Matthew 13:40-42,49,50; 24:48-51)
The Christian communities, which are now called sects, are decimated. It is the
biggest genocide concerning religion in history. The eyes of people who were
deceived by them will be opened. (Isaiah 6:9-13)
The "tyrant", according to LXX “lawless” = the rulers of Christian minorities
will be removed. (Isaiah 29:1-8,20,21) Ezekiel calls them "women". (Ezekiel
13:17-23; Revelation 14:4a; Isaiah 3:12) Paul names them "the man of
lawlessness". (2 Thessalonians 2:4,8b)
10. Immediately after the tribulation of those days "the abomination of
desolation", in other words the World Government will be set up [will given
authority; Revelation 13:7b]. (Daniel 11:31b; 12:11) The Book of Revelation
calls it a "beast". (11:7; 13:1,2,7,8)
11. The spirit is poured out upon people who belong to Jesus. (Revelation
11:11-13) The "wheat" = the sons of kingdom, will be gathered into the
"storehouse" after burning the "weeds" = organized Christian churches which
earlier posed as the churches of Christ. (Matthew 13:30b; Eph.1:9,10) And then
Jesus will set up a "faithful slave" over his whole possession. (Matthew
12. The seven trumpets start to sound. Those who belong to Jesus are revealing
future events to the World. They will also try to explain what God thinks of
certain issues. (Revelation 8:6-10:11)
13. The power in Russia will be taken over by a dictator who is atheist. The
military power will be his god. (Daniel 11:36-39)
14. Not longer after that, there will be the WWIV. That time Russia will triumph
the same as it did after the WWII. (Daniel 11:40; Daniel 7:11; Luke 21:25;
Revelation 13:3a). "The king of the north" will act as a "God’s hammer" ravaging
many countries like Babylon in ancient times. (Jeremiah 51:20,25)
15. Russia occupies Israel as well. (Daniel 11:41)
16. After that war the World Government is resuscitated. The "purple beast" will
be given even more power. The politicians will relinquish their sovereignty in
favor of the beast. (Revelation 13:14; 17:8,17)
17. Attack on "Babylon the Great" = big, apostatized churches, drunk with blood
of innocent people, which betrayed God and Jesus by co-operating with kings of
the earth. (Revelation 17:16)
18. Next, nations see the sign of the Son of man (Matthew 24:30). Probably it
will be connected with the first resurrection (Revelation 20:6). People who have
died in union with Jesus will rise first (among 144.000). They will get a spirit
body at the resurrection. (1 Corinthians 15:35,44) What will be the proof of the
resurrection? Immediately after that, remaining of 144,000 will be transfigured
(1 Corinthians 15:52; 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17). Simultaneously they will be
caught away from the earth and taken to heaven. The transfigurations of
belonging to Jesus dependably will not be seen and it will cause a great
expression on nations.
19. The whole nation of Israel is converting and gathering. (Ezekiel 39:25-29;
Romans 11:25-32). After taking to heaven belonging to group of 144,000 nation of
Israel will be a light for the nations. God will be with them and will pour his
spirit over them. (Ezekiel 39:29)
20. Rebuilding of the Temple according to directions given to Ezekiel. (Ezekiel
21. There will be collection of chosen, separation the "sheep from the goats".
(Matthew 24:31; 25:31-44; Revelation 14:15,16).
22. "The king of the north" will attack people who worship the true God [Israel]
(Ezekiel 38:10-12). "The beast" [the word government] also will take part in
this attack. (Revelation 19:19).
23. After Armageddon the power on the world will be taken over by the "new
heaven" = the kingdom of God i.e. Jesus and belonging to him. (Daniel 7:27;
Matthew 6:10; Revelation 21:1-4) "The old heaven" = imperfect system of
authority created by man will go away. Rules and the law created by imperfect
people which are captivating and making difficulty will be untied. All
activities remaining uncovered, good or bad will be revealed, all crimes will
come to light. (2 Peter 3:10; 1 Timothy 5:25).
24. The rest of dead will come to life! The earth will become the paradise.
(Acts 24:15; Psalm 37:29; Isaiah 11:6-9; 25:8; 35:5-7). When the thousand year’s
period of Jesus’ kingdom will end people who come to life during this period are
put to the test. And then they will really come to life God’s point of view and
then they will get ability to live forever. (Revelation 20:5a,7,8; comp. Luke
15:32; 1 John 3:14).
"Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare:
before they spring forth will I cause you to hear them". (Isaiah 42:9)
Latest update: 2006-AUG-13
Author: Ewiak Ryszard