The Garden of Eden story: The fall (or
perhaps rise) of humanity, & original sin.
Part 1:Analysis of Genesis 3: Quotations,
Overview, Assumptions, & Authorship
"Take the snake, the fruit-tree and the woman from the tableau, and we
have no fall, no frowning Judge, no Inferno, no everlasting punishment --
hence no need of a Savior. Thus the bottom falls out of the whole Christian
theology." Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 1
"Sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in
this way death came to all men, because all sinned!" St. Paul (Romans 5:12;
"The whole justification of Jesus' life and death is predicated on the
existence of Adam and the forbidden fruit he and Eve ate. Without the original
sin, who needs to be redeemed? Without Adam's fall into a life of constant sin
terminated by death, what purpose is there to Christianity? None....Without
Adam, without the original sin, Jesus Christ is reduced to a man with a
mission on a wrong planet!" Richard Bozarth 2
When the topic of sin is brought up, the first thought that often comes to
mind -- at least for the typical North American -- has something to do with
sexual behavior. The second guess,
at least among many Christians, would
probably be related to what they consider the "fall" of humanity as described in Genesis
That particular chapter has had a profound effect upon Christianity.
early years of the Christian movement, there were three distinct belief systems,
each with its own interpretation of Genesis 3:
The Jewish Christians, centered in Jerusalem, were the first
Christian group, founded by the followers of Jesus. They considered Paul
to be a heretic. Little is known about their specific beliefs. However,
they apparently followed the Jewish traditions and beliefs -- one of which did not place a great
deal of emphasis on Genesis 3. The Jewish Christians were later killed,
scattered, and exiled by the Roman Army during two uprisings in the first
and second centuries CE.
Some Gnostic sects honored the snake
of Genesis 3. They did not view the snake
as a seducer who led the first couple into sinful behavior. Rather, they saw him/it as a
liberator who brought knowledge to Adam and Eve by convincing them to eat of the Tree
of the Knowledge of Good and Evil and thus to become fully human by achieving something that they did not have when they were created: a moral sense. Magically, by eating the fruit, they realized for the first time the difference between good and evil. The
Gnostics were attacked by the Pauline Christians in one of the first Christian genocides and essentially wiped out by the mainline Christian church.
The Pauline Christians derived most of their theological
beliefs from the Pauline Epistles and the Gospel of John. To them, Genesis
3 was of paramount importance. They saw in the passage the reasons for "humanity's corrupt nature and
desperate existential situation." 3 Paul used the
chapter to derive his concept of sin. Later, Augustine used it to develop his
idea of original sin -- the belief
that all of the generations of Adam and Eve's descendents (including ourselves) have inherited the sinful behavior of
the first human couple. Original sin leads naturally to the beliefs that:
gulf exists between humanity and God.
The natural destination after
death for all of humanity is to be eternally tortured in Hell without any hope
of mercy or cessation of the pain.
The Pauline Christians survived to evolve
into modern Christianity. Essentially all of the tens of thousands of Christian denominations and
sects have preserved these beliefs, They have developed a variety of conflicting beliefs about how Christians can obtain salvation
The first three chapters of Genesis arguably make the most important single section of the Bible.
They lay the foundation for many historical theological beliefs of Christianity:
Modern day conservative Christians interpret Genesis 3 as describing
the fall of humanity, and consider it to be among the most important
passages in the Bible.
Many very liberal Christians interpret Genesis 3 as the Gnostic did
and do. The passage is seen as describing the rise of humanity from a
proto-human to a fully human state.
Assumptions about Genesis 3:
Theologians bring certain fundamental assumptions with them when they study a
passage from the Bible. The following table is a somewhat simplified attempt to
show the preconceptions that many very conservative and some very liberal theologians
bring to the first three chapters of Genesis. The differences between conservative and liberal theological beliefs are extreme:
Moses was inspired directly by God, thus ensuring that
Genesis is all true.
Authors inspired by a desire to create a mythical
history of origins.
Nature of writing:
Accurate history, biology & science. It is free of
error when literally interpreted.
Religious myth -- a spiritually important story of events that never actually happened.
The Bible is supremely consistent, teaching the same
messages from cover to cover.
The Bible was written about a millennium and
demonstrates major evolutions in religious thought.
Inerrant (without error) in its original
written form (autograph copies).
None. The creation stories, Garden of Eden, etc. never
actually happened as described.
Nature of God:
God is a spirit; any reference to God's hands, legs,
voice, are symbolic in nature.
The author "J" viewed God in anthropomorphic terms: as
a special large and powerful male human.
God is loving, caring, and just.
The author "J" viewed God as fickle, jealous,
deceptive, vengeful and unfair.
God is omniscient and omnipotent.
"J" viewed God as limited in knowledge and abilities.
For example, he was unable to predict Adam and Eve's behavior in advance.
The "Tree of Knowledge" incident in Genesis 3:
Adam and Eve disobeyed God. Their "Original Sin" (a.k.a. "the Fall") introduced death into the world. Their sin was transferred to hundreds of successive generations down to the present day.
Adam and Eve were created by God without a sense of right and wrong. The eating of the fruit generated an "Original Blessing" that symbolizes humanity's rise from their animal, instinct nature, and attaining a moral sense.
Very conservative Christians generally believe that
Moses wrote all of the Pentateuch (the first five book of the Hebrew
Scriptures), including Genesis. The text of the Pentateuch certainly states that
he was the author. They believe that he was inspired by God to write material that was free of error.
Christians believe in the Documentary
Hypothesis: that the Pentateuch were written by four anonymous authors,
generally referred to as J,E, P and
"P" wrote Genesis 1:1 to 2:3. He was a
priest who viewed God as a distant, transcendent deity, sometimes harsh
and critical. The words "mercy,"
"grace" and "repentance" are totally
absent from his writing,
although they are used often by "J." He lived before the
destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BCE -- long after
"R' wrote the first half of Genesis 2:4. He was a redactor who
assembled the writings of J,E,P, & D into the present text.
"J" authored Genesis 2:4b to 4:26, including all of
Chapter 3 which is analyzed below. He probably wrote sometime
between the middle of the 9th century BCE and the late 8th century BCE.
He referred to God as "JHWH", and viewed him in anthropomorphic terms: God formed Adam from clay; he walked and talked
with Adam and Eve in the garden; he spoke to Moses, etc.