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Main biblical themes


Scapegoating: the transferability of sin:
Punishing the innocent for the sins
of the guilty

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Conflicting biblical quotations:

Is scapegoating ethical? Is sin -- and the punishment for sin -- transferable from the guilty to the innocent?

No, at least sin which requires the death penalty is not transferable:

bullet "The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for his own sin." 1

Yes, God can personally take an active role in transferring punishment among generations from the guilty to the innocent:

bullet "Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them (idols), nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me." 2

A skeptical quotation by Ahamed Deedat:

Original Sin: "Each and every one has this contamination according to the Christians....He, [God] blames you for something that you didn't do and he blesses you for what someone else did." [That is, God blames everyone for the sins of Adam and Eve, and blesses believers for the sacrifice of Jesus] . 3


When a crime is committed, who should be held responsible? Should it be only the person who committed the illegal act and that person's accomplices? If punishment is involved, should it be restricted to the perpetrator? Or is it appropriate to apply a principle of collective responsibility 4 and punish a group of people who have some connection to the perpetrator? -- perhaps including that person's parents; their children; more distant relatives; inhabitants of the same town; those of the same religion, tribe, nationality, language, skin color, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, or some other factor. 5

Most legal, religious and ethical systems worldwide hold individuals responsible for their own acts. A guilty person cannot transfer their responsibility for having committed a criminal act to their children, parents, friends, or strangers. When they do the crime, they are stuck with the time in jail.

However, if we assume that the Bible is inerrant and unambiguous, the Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. Old Testament) and the Christian Scriptures (a.k.a. New Testament) both teach a different message. They contain numerous descriptions of instances where a transfer of responsibility from the guilty to the innocent took place -- some under direct instruction by God.

As Tracy White wrote in her column "Daily Walk:"

"Four thousands years were required to teach the world through extensive pattern and unfolding design that sin must be atoned only by the shedding of innocent blood. ..." 6 

Although this section of our web site describes many of the instances in the Bible where sin transfer is described, It is important to remember that many liberal and mainline Jews and Christians do not believe in the inerrancy of the Bible. Some consider many biblical stories to be unrelated to real, historical events. Some even feel that some events are against the will and intent of God, and merely reflect the pre-scientific tribal culture that was active when the books were written. Many suggest that such transfer of sin is immoral and that biblical passages promoting such transfers should be ignored along with other biblical events that are immoral by today's ethical standards.

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Topics covered in this section:

bullet Introduction to sin transference.
bullet Stories of sin transference in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament).
bullet In Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers.

bullet In Deuteronomy and Joshua
bullet From the Ten Commandments, 2 Samuel, 1 Chronicles, and Hosea
bullet Stories of sin transference in the Christian Scriptures (New Testament).
bullet Practical examples of how the concept of sin transference has harmed people. Why is this biblical theme rarely mentioned


  1. Deuteronomy 24:16 in the King James Version of the Bible.
  2. Exodus 20:5 in the King James Version of the Bible. This is part of one of the three copies of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Scriptures.
  3. Excerpted from a speech by Ahamed Deedat at: http://www.youtube.com/
  4. Marion Smiley, "Collective Responsibility," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, at: http://plato.stanford.edu/
  5. Nicholas Kristof, "Sentenced to be raped," The New York Times, 2004-SEP-29, Page A-25. Abstract at: http://query.nytimes.com/ Full text at: http://www.pakistan-facts.com/
  6. Tracy White, "A life for a life: Abraham's obedient faith was rewarded," Think magazine, Focus Press, 2011-FEB, Page 8.

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Copyright © 2002 to 2014 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally written: 2002-OCT-20
Latest update: 2014-JUN-21
Author: B.A. Robinson

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