Human slavery: An overview
Slavery was generally practiced in the Middle East before
the ancient Israelites emerged on the scene. Slavery was subsequently regulated, supported and
the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament). It was also a common practice during the time
of the Christian Scriptures (New Testament).
It continued into the modern era in many countries around the world. In
North America, most slaves were African-American. However, a few were
Caucasian or Native American. An abolition movement began during the late
17th century. It was created and initially supported by:
Those denominations which traced their roots back to
the Anabaptist movements (Mennonites, Quakers, etc.). These groups
have traditionally emphasized human rights.
A very few other Christians, and groups of Christians.
Rationalists and other non-Christians. 1
The Abolitionist movement emphasized Jesus' and St. Paul's
general statements concerning love, the equality of all persons, and the
"Golden Rule" (treating one's fellow humans as one expects to be
treated by others). At first, the vast bulk of Christian groups and individuals
supported slavery, citing the many
Biblical passages as justification. There was a general feeling at the time
that the two sides had equally effective arguments.
The Abolitionist movement grew slowly,
as an increasing percentage of Christians realized that even though slavery was
condoned, accepted, and regulated by passages throughout the Bible, it was profoundly
immoral. The movement caused immense consternation at the time, as people realized that the Bible -- particularly the Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. Old Testament) contained many immoral passages when judged by today's systems of morality.
Why study slavery today?
Slavery is still an active topic today, because:
Racism and other residual effects of slavery are still
alive and doing well in North America.
There is considerable evidence that slavery is still practiced in some countries,
notably in Sudan and Niger.
Extreme right-wing Christian movements, such as Christian
Reconstructionism advocate a return to Old Testament
religious law. This would restore the institution of slavery in North
There are currently two major religious, political and
social debates that have points of similarity with the past conflict
Throughout history, during debates over abolition, women's
rights and gay/lesbian rights, those promoting "liberty and justice for all"
often cite Jesus' and St. Paul's general statements about the equality of all persons, and the Golden Rule. They view
slavery, racism, sexism, homophobia, and transphobia as
fundamental human rights issues. Those wishing to give special privileges to
slave owners, Caucasians, men and heterosexuals often cite individual Biblical passages which support discrimination against women and minorities.
- John Wijngaards, "The Theology of Slavery," at: http://www.iol.ie/~duacon/wompr1.htm#slave
- "Slavery flourishing despite strong laws," The Toronto Star, "Rights
Watch" section, 2003-JUN-22, Page F4.
Copyright © 1999 to 2013 incl., by
Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update: 2013-FEB-22
Author: B.A. Robinson