Additional information on transgender
individuals, transsexuals, & gender identity
Various definitions of "transgender."
The definition used on this site.
Transgender symptoms & detection.
Various definitions of "transgender:"
There is no consensus on the precise meaning and nature of the term "transgender."
Many fundamentalist and other evangelical Christians refer to transgender persons as being simply "gender confused:" That is, the latter are unclear about their gender and cannot accept the validity of their birth gender. The implication is that with therapy, and/or prayer, they should be able to straighten out their thinking and accept their birth gender as God created them, and as God intends them to be.
This definition conflicts with essentially all professionals working in the field; with lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender persons and transsexuals (LGBT); with religious liberals; and with secularists. They generally feel that transgender persons are not confused; they have a very clear, unambiguous, and fixed perception of their gender; their main challenge is that it disagrees with their gender assigned at birth in some way.
Wiktionary has a very narrow definition of "transgender" that would only apply to a minority of transgender persons:
http://en.wiktionary.org/ "Pertaining to someone who does not identify with conventional categories of male or female, but combines elements of both or moves between the two. Sometimes used as a general, inclusive term, and sometimes as synonymous with or opposed to more specific terms such as transsexual, transvestite etc.
Other definitions are broader and refer to persons who accept the concept of two genders but believe that they are of the opposite gender from that gender they were registered as at birth:
wordnetweb.princeton.edu/: "involving a partial or full reversal of gender."
en.wiktionary.org/wiki/: "Describing a person of one sex who considers himself or herself to really belong to the opposite sex, or who wishes to be surgically converted to the opposite sex, or has been so converted."
lunco.cfsh.info/: "People who feel that their gender identity conflicts with their sexual anatomy – that is a girl who feels like she ought to have been a boy or a boy who feels like he ought to have been a girl. People who are transgender often choose to live the role of the opposite gender [to their birth-identified gender]."
www.share.uwa.edu.au/: "A person whose gender identity does not match the anatomical sex with which they were born. It refers to the feeling of not being born into the "right" physical body. ..."
Other definitions are even broader, and include:
Persons with Gender Incongruence. For example:
Genderqueer or intergender: Persons who identify themselves as being both man and woman, or neither man nor woman, or as falling completely outside of the male/female gender binary; 1
As well as:
Persons without Gender Incongruence, but who express themselves in ways expected of the opposite sex. For example:
- Transvestites: Persons who like to cross-dress in clothing of the other sex;
- Cross dressers: Synonym for "transvestite"; currently a preferred term;
- Drag queens: A male performer who wears women's clothing in their act;
- Drag kings: A female performer who wears men's clothing.
Some other definitions are:
en.wikipedia.org/: "Transgender is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies to deviate from the normative gender roles."
xyworld.ca: "An umbrella term which is often used to describe a wide range of identities and experiences, including: transsexuals, FTMs, MTFs, cross-dressers, drag queens & kings, two-spirits, genderqueers, and many more."
www.outnowspringfield.org/: "Refers to those whose gender expression or identity transgresses socially assigned gender roles or expectation, or who do not identify as either of the two sexes as currently defined. ..."
urespect.umich.edu/report/definitions/: "A term describing persons whose gender identities, expressions or behaviors are not those traditionally associated with their birth sex."
- www.northernconcord.org.uk/: "transgender ... has recently come to be used as the 'general term' to encompass all cross dressers, transvestites and transsexuals.
The definitions that we will use on this website:
We have chosen to define "transgender" in its narrow sense to refer to persons:
- who are certain that their true gender is opposite to their genetic, birth-identified gender, or
- feel that their gender is intermediate between male and female, or
- who feel that the term "gender" has no meaning to them, or
- that switch from time to time between the two genders.
That is, they regard themselves as different from their birth-identified gender, either male or female, or neither, or both.
However, we no longer use the term "transgenderism" to describe those who identify their gender as different from that defined at birth. The term was once widely used but has gone out of favor.
We don't include within this definition individuals who are cisgender -- their gender identity matches their birth-assigned gender -- and who choose to either:
- Cross-dress: They enjoy dressing up in the clothes of the opposite gender, and/or
- Be Drag Queens & Kings: They give performances in the clothing of the opposite gender.
We have also chosen to define transsexuals as transgender persons who have a desire to undergo -- or have already undergone -- sexual reassignment procedures and/or are taking hormone medication to change the appearance of their body so that it more closely matches their identified gender. Further, they live in accordance with their gender identity.
Although these are commonly used definitions, they are by no means universally accepted by the LGBT community.
Symptoms and detection of being transsexual:
The American Psychiatric Association periodically publishes a
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). In the fourth edition (1952), it listed five
symptoms of what they called "Gender Identity Disorder" or GID:
- A sense of discomfort and inappropriateness about one's anatomical sex.
- A wish to be rid of one's own genitals and to live as a member of the
- The disturbance had been continuous (not limited to periods of stress) for
at least two years.
- The absence of physical intersex or genetic abnormality.
The lack of cause due to another mental disorder, such as schizophrenia.
In the fifth edition of their manual (DSM-V), issued in 2013, they abandoned the term "Gender Identity Disorder." They now consider that having a gender identity different from one's birth identified sex to be a normal sexual variant, not a disorder. They now stress the importance of "Gender Dysphoria:" the depression, anxiety, etc. that so often comes with being transgender.
Wynne Parry, writing for LiveScience, said:
"This shift reflects recognition that the disagreement between birth gender and identity may not necessarily be pathological if it does not cause the individual distress, said Robin Rosenberg, a clinical psychologist and co-author of the psychology textbook “Abnormal Psychology” (Worth Publishers, 2009). For instance, many transgender people ... are not distressed by their cross-gender identification and should not be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, Rosenberg said. ..."
"The DSM-5 also separates the diagnosis of gender dysphoria for children from that of adolescents and adults. The characteristics of gender dysphoria vary with age, and many children with gender dysphoria outgrow it as they age ..." 5
The World Health Organization defines "transsexualism" as:
"A desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex."
According to the Renaissance Transgender Association, before hormone
treatments or gender reassignment surgery:
"The transsexual appears to be a perfectly normal male or female with normal
primary and secondary sexual characteristics. ... transsexualism cannot be
detected visually or by any other means. Since other people can't see anything
amiss, they conclude that transsexualism is not a physical defect, but more an
emotional/psychological problem. It is a common but erroneous belief that with a
little self-discipline, or with counseling, a transsexual person can act
normally and accept their lot in life. ..."
After decades of trying, psychiatrists have had to admit defeat in conquering
this dilemma. In all the years that psychiatry has tried to 'cure'
transsexualism, not one case has responded positively and permanently."
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.
"What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"?," World Health Organization, 2010, at: http://www.who.int/
As cited in "Straight Answers: The Morality of 'Sex Change' Operations," The
Catholic Herald, 2005-OCT-19, at: http://www.catholicherald.com/
"ICD-10: F64.0: Transsexualism," World Health Organization, 2007-JUL, at: http://apps.who.int/
"Understanding Transsexualism," Renaissance Transgender Association, Inc.,
1990-OCT, at: http://www.ren.org/
Wynne Parry, "Gender Dysphoria: DSM-5 Reflects Shift In Perspective On Gender Identity," Huffington Post, 2013-JUN-04, at: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/
Copyright © 2007 to 2018 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Original posting: 2007-JUN-08
Latest update: 2018-AUG-08
Author: B.A. Robinson