Being transgender or transsexual.
Gender dysphoria, & gender identity.
Studies of employment discrimination
against transgender persons
In 2009, The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Action Fund prepared a document titled: "Passing the
Employment Non-Discrimination Act: A toolkit."
The Task Force has
formed a coalition with many lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) groups
in order to promote the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (2009). The groups
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Action Fund, National Center for Transgender
Equality (NCTE), Pride at Work, the National Center for Lesbian Rights
(NCLR), Parents Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) and a
number of other colleague organizations. 1
The toolkit contains the following data from
studies of employment discrimination against -- and financial hardship of -- transgender persons.
Statistics on Employment Discrimination Against Transgender
Discrimination against transgender people is widespread:
Nationally: A study conducted between 1996 and 1997 found that 37 percent
transgender individuals surveyed had experienced employment discrimination.
Illinois: A study conducted between 1995 and 2001 found that 37-42 percent of gender-variant individuals surveyed experienced some type of|
employment discrimination. 3
||San Francisco, CA: A 2006 survey of 194 members of the San Francisco
transgender community found:
||40 percent of respondents believed they were discriminated against when applying for work.
||Over 24 percent of people reported that they were sexually harassed at work.
||19 percent experienced trouble in advancing in their company or department.
18 percent were fired from a job due to gender identity
Virginia: A study conducted between 2005 and 2006 reported that 20 percent of transgender individuals were denied employment and 13 percent
based on their gender identity. 5|
Washington state: A study conducted between 2006 and 2007 found that 41.5 percent of transgender people surveyed had been denied employment,
or otherwise discriminated against on the job because of their gender
and/or expression. 6
Economic hardship of many Transgender
Employment discrimination contributes to low incomes for
Minnesota: A study conducted between 1997 and 2002 found that 22 percent of transgender people live below the poverty line.
San Francisco, CA: A study conducted in 2006 of 194 transgender
individuals found a 35 percent unemployment rate, with 59 percent earning less than
$15,300 annually. 8
Philadelphia, PA: A study conducted in 1997 found that of 81 transgender people, 59 percent were unemployed and 56 percent made less than $15,000 annually. 9
Chicago, IL: A study conducted between 2000 and 2001 found that of 111 transgender individuals, 34 percent were unemployed and an additional 40
percent made less than $20,000 annually, with a median income of just
year -- less than half the national median income. 10
Los Angeles, CA: A 1998?1999 study of transgender women found that 50 percent reported incomes of less than $12,000 per year, and 23 percent
on government assistance. 11
Washington, D.C.: In 1999, only 58 percent of transgender respondents
were employed, 29 percent reported no annual source of income, 31 percent
reported that their annual income was under $10,000, and 15 percent reported
that they lost a job due to employment discrimination. 12
Virginia: A 2005?2006 study of 250 transgender people found between
percent were unemployed and 39 percent made $17,000 or less annually. 13
Washington state: A 2006-2007 study of 258 transgender people found that 39 percent of those surveyed made less that $20,000 annually. 14
"Passing the Employment Non-Discrimination Act: A toolkit," National Gay and
Lesbian Task force Action Fund, 2009, at:
http://www.thetaskforce.org/ This is a PDF file.
- Lombardi, E.L., Wilkins, R.A., Priesing, D, Malouf, D. (2001). Gender
Violence: Trans-gender Experiences with Violence and Discrimination. Journal of Homosexuality.
- Plotner, B., Stevens-Miller, M., Wood-Sievers, T. (Spring 2002).
Discrimination 2002: 6th Report on Discrimination and Hate Crimes Against Gender Variant People. Chicago: It's Time Illinois!.
- (2006). Good Jobs NOW! A Snap Shot of the Economic Health of San Francisco?s Transgender Communities. A survey from: San Francisco Bay and
Guardian and Transgender Law Center.
- Xavier, J.M., Hannold, J.A., Bradford, J., Simmons, R. (2007). The
Health-related Needs, and Lifecourse Experiences of Transgender Virginians. Richmond: Division of Disease Prevention through the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, Virginia Department of Health.
- (2008). Perspectives Northwest Survey Report: Transgender and Gender
Variant Community Needs Assessment Survey. Ingersoll Gender Center.
- Bockting, W., Huang, c., Ding, H., Robinson, B., Rosser, S. (2005). Are Transgender Persons at Higher Risk for HIV Than Other Sexual Minorities? A
Comparison of HIV Prevalence and Risks. International Journal of Transgenderism
- Op. Cit.: (2006) Good Jobs NOW!
- Kenagy, G.P. (2005). The Health and Social Service Needs of
Transgender People in Philadelphia. International Journal of Transgenderism.
- Kenagy, G. P., Bostwick, W.B. (2005) . Health and Social Service Needs
Trans-gender People in Chicago. International Journal of Transgenderism.
- Op. Cit.: Reback, C.J. [sic]
Xavier, J.M. (2000). The Washington, DC. Transgender Needs Assessment Survey Final Report for Phase Two. Washington, DC: Administration for
of the District of Columbia. at:
(accessed April 2007).
- Ibid: Xavier, J.M., Hannold, J.A.
- Op. Cit. (2008) Perspectives.
The toolkit is copyright © 2009 by The National Gay and
Lesbian Task Force Action Fund. The Fund "... encourages, and grants
permission to, reproduce and distribute their guide
1 in whole or in part, provided that
it is done so with attribution."
Originally posted: 2009-AUG-08
Latest update: 2009-AUG-22