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Climate Change. Part 26, during 2018-JULY

New York City reports to the UN.
Impacts of humans burning up
all our fossil energy.
Death Valley, CA, sets new record.

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This topic is continued from the previous essay

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2018-JUL-05: The city of Ouargia, Algeria experienced the hottest accurately measured temperature ever recorded in Africa:

The highest temperature ever recorded with accuracy in Africa occurred in Northern Africa in the city of Ouargia, Algeria (Population 190,000). It reached 51.1°C (124.3°F). The city is in the middle of the Algerian Sahara Desert, across the Mediterranean, South of France.

There have been other high temperatures as high as 55.0°C (131°F) claimed for Africa in the past. However, their accuracies are in doubt. 1

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2018-JUL-11: New York City becomes the world's first city to report its environmental sustainability progress to the UN:

During 2014, New York City committed to make a 80% reduction in its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2050. During 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed an order committing the city to the Paris accord goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 º C or 2.7 º F.

Now, the city has become the first city in the world to report its progress toward the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on climate change, including: clean water and sanitation; affordable and clean energy; sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; and land protection. 

Penny Abeywardena, NYC Commissioner of International Affairs, said:

 "We needed a starting point [from the UN], but all of the activation -- whether it is around zero hunger, gender equity, clean water and sanitation -- starts in our communities. City and local authorities are ground zero for all of that work." 2

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World-wide impacts if humans burn up all our fossil energy:

Scientists at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Stanford University, and elsewhere, have modeled the effects of dirty-energy dependence over the next 10,000 years. If humans burn up all of the planet's reachable fossil fuels over this interval, we would release thousands of gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere. This would raise temperatures on Earth so that the Antarctic ice sheet in the would almost disappear. That would raise ocean levels by about 10 feet by the year 2100, and by 160 feet by the year 12000. The latter would cause the bottom 15 floors of high-rise apartment buildings on the world's coastlines of the world to be under water.

Lead author Ricarda Winkelmann of the Institute said:

"If we were to burn all attainable fossil fuel resources, this would eliminate the Antarctic ice sheet and cause long-term global sea-level rise unprecedented in human history. ... This would not happen overnight, but the mind-boggling point is that our actions today are changing the face of planet Earth as we know it, and will continue to do so for tens of thousands of years to come. If we want to avoid Antarctica to become ice-free, we need to keep coal, gas and oil in the ground."

Co-author Anders Levermann of the Institute explained:

"By using more and more fossil energy, we increase the risk of triggering changes that we may not be able to stop or reverse in the future. The West Antarctic ice sheet may already have tipped into a state of unstoppable ice loss, whether as a result of human activity or not. But if we want to pass on cities like Tokyo, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Calcutta, Hamburg or New York as our future heritage, we need to avoid a tipping [of the ice sheet] in East Antarctica." 3

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Climate tools provided by Climate Central:

They are "an independent organization of leading scientists and journalists researching and reporting the facts about our changing climate and its impact on the public."

They provide a valuable service by showing actual data from around the world. This contributes to the first step needed to attack global warming: convincing the public that climate change is real and not a hoax perpetrated by foreign countries, as advocated by President Trump and others. The second step is to convince the public that climate change is being caused by human activity. The final step is to demand that governments do something to reverse climate change.

Some of the data that Climate Central provides is:

  • A water level Risk Zone Map: You can enter the name of a city on a coast somewhere in the world. The default is New York City. You select the height of water over a range from the current water level up to ten feet above the current level, and see what existing land areas will become under water in the future.

  • U.S. State rankings of temperature.

  • The number of warm nights in recent years in various U.S. cities -- those with temperatures above 65 ºC.

  • Global temperature anomalies in ºC, by month, since the year 1880. As of 2018-JUL, it shows 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 as the four hottest years since 1880.

  • The number of days with heavy rainfall at various U.S. locations over the interval 1950 to now..

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2018-AUG-01: Death Valley in California retains record:

The highest temperature ever recorded on the Earth's surface was during 1913-JUL-10 when Death Valley hit 56.7°C (134°F)! Contributing to this record is the elevation of the valley, which is below sea level. Also, the nearby Sierra Nevada mountain range prevents rain from reaching the valley. 4

This year, for the first time, Death Valley has broken the record for hottest average monthly temperature anywhere in the world two years in a row:

  • During 2017-July, the average temperature was 107.4 ºF (41.9 ºC). 5

  • During 2018-July, the average temperature was 108.1 ºF (42.2 ºC),

Brian Brettschneider, a climate scientist at the University of Alaska, in Fairbanks, predicts that this is a pattern and that record temperatures will routinely surpass these marks in coming years.

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This topic continues in the next essay, with developments during 2018-August & September

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References used:

The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.

  1. Dr. Jeff Masters, "Africa’s Hottest Reliably Measured Temperature on Record: 124.3°F on Thursday in Algeria," Weather Underground, 2018-JUL-06, at:
  2. Nicole Javorsky,"Why New York City Is Reporting Its Sustainability Progress to the UN," Citylab, 2018-JUL-13, at:
  3. John Metcalfe, "Imagining the Most Catastrophic Climate Future Ever," Citylab, 2015-SEP-11, at:
  4. , "Death Valley Smashes Heat Record, 2nd Year in a Row," Live Science, 2018-AUG-01, at:
  5. "Death Valley Breaks Record for Hottest Month Ever in the US," Live Science, 2017-AUG-04, at:
  6. Amanda Ruggeri, "Louisiana is disappearing under water. Can oysters save it?, British Broadcasting Corp., 2018-AUG-27, at:
  7. Friday Phiri, "Climate Change Becomes a Reality Check for the North," Inter Press Service news agency, 2018-SEP-10, at:

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The following reports in this section that discuss environment and climate change may be of interest to you:

  • Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.

  • Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.

  • Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.

  • Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.

  • Part 5: 2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species. Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.

  • Part 6: 2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."

  • Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Continued). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.

  • Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth

  • Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.

  • Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.

  • Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.

  • Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 promised plans on energy and the environment.

  • Part 13: star 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.

  • Part 14: star 2017-JAN: Recent climate change measurements.

  • Part 15: star 2017-JAN to APR: Climate Change beliefs are changing; more people accept it as real, and are now debating its cause.

  • Part 16: 2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Colombia. Carbon Dioxide
    in Atmosphere Reaches New High.

  • Part 17: 2017-JAN to APR: Studies of the effects of sea-level rise in California between now and the year 2100.

  • Part 18: President Trump severs the U.S. from the Paris Accord. U.S. and world leaders react.

  • Part 19: 2017: More Reactions to the U.S. Withdraw from the Paris Agreement.

  • Part 20: star2017: Group of 20 summit meeting. Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas.Is climate change increasing the severity or frequency of hurricanes?

  • Part 21: Can government regulations help? Is Harvey a message from God? U.S. record high temperatures. Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas.
    Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, & GA.

  • Part 22: 2017-SEP/OCT: The most expensive recent hurricanes to attack the United States. Does God use Hurricanes to send a message? Conflicts; climate change causes rise in hunger.

  • Part 23: All UN states have signed the Paris Agreement. Government report contradicts the President. Comment by the Union of Concerned Scientists. Temperature records broken. Some fake news about the EPA that is too good to miss.

  • Part 24: 2018-FEB to MAY: New temperature records in Toronto. President signs bill increasing research."Onion's" amusing fake news. Sea levels rising; cities under water. Climate change beliefs as function of age. Proposed Mount Trumpmore project. How global warming is affecting California. Animal, Insect, & Bird Ranges Shrink. Nutrients in rice reduced. California Governor's comments.

  • Part 25: 2018-JUN: A very few encouraging signs. Hurricanes slowing as winds increase. Changes in Antarctic ice and environment. Norway's growing season ncreased.
    A new world highest temperature.

  • Part 27: 2018-AUG & SEP: Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana Climate change affecting Northern countries. Hurricane Florence hits the Carolinas.

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Copyright © 2017 & 2018 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally posted: 2017-JUN-10
Latest update: 2018-JUL-16
Author: B.A. Robinson

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