2019: Alternate approaches if the Ocean Cleanup projects fails:
Laurel Hamers, writing for Science News, listed four alternate methods of reducing the Garbage Patches:
Collect trash from rivers and streams before it gets into the ocean. The City of Baltimore, MD has such a project in place.
Collect trash that is deposited on ocean beaches before it has a chance to be washed away.
Restrict the use of plastic for single-use items, like grocery bags and plastic straws.
Recycle/reuse plastic. 1 A new type of plastic used to manufacture cans can be broken down chemically into its original ingredients and rebuilt multiple times. 2
2019-JAN-15: Overview of climate change and global emissions at the start of 2019:
Writing in The Atlantic magazine, Robinson Meyer concludes that:
"The year 2018 was not an easy one for planet Earth." 3
There are some positive indicators:
The cost of wind and solar electrical generation continue to decrease.
The most popular luxury automobile in the U.S. is now an electric car.
However, these are overwhelmed by negative factors:
The amount of heat-trapping gasses entering the atmosphere drastically increased during 2018, both in the U.S. and in other countries across the world.
"When climate scientists want to tell a story about the future of the planet, they use a set of four standard scenarios called “representative concentration pathways,” or RCPs. ... The worst case is RCP 8.5."
Zeke Hausfather, an analyst and climate scientist at Berkeley Earth, noted that since 2005, total global greenhouse-gas emissions have most closely tracked the RCP 8.5 worst-case scenario in which the world’s average temperature would rise by 4.9 degrees Celsius, or nearly 9 degrees Fahrenheit.
Rob Jackson, an Earth scientist at Stanford University and the chair of the Global Carbon Project said:
“That’s an inconceivable increase for global temperatures -- especially when we think about them being global average temperatures. Temperatures will be even higher in the northern latitudes, and higher over land than over the ocean."
2019-JAN-28: Climate Change Deniers in Congress are fewer:
There are a total of 535 voting members in Congress: 435 representatives and 100 senators.
The Center for American Progress Action Fund (CAPAF) has surveyed the makeup of the 116th (current) Congress following the midterm elections. They found that a total of 150 members of Congress are "climate deniers." CAPAF defined "deniers" as those who believe that:
Climate change is not real or is a hoax; and/or
Climate has always been changing and continues to do so; the Earth is just in a standard cycle of warming; and/or
The science around climate change is not settled; and/or
Since they are not scientists themselves, they cannot know for certain; and/or
Humans are contributing to a changing climate but are not the main contributors.
All of the deniers are Republicans. This is a reduction by 30 members from before the elections. Deniers make up 28% of current members of Congress, and almost 60% of Republican members. 4
A Monmouth University poll sampled the opinion of the U.S. public. Data was collected between NOV-09 to 12. This is shortly before the federal Government's Fourth National Climate Assessment was released and before President Donald Trump’s subsequent remarks which questioned the report. Their poll found that:
78% of all U.S. adults believe that climate change is real and is adversely affecting the weather. This is an increase of 8 percentage points since late 2015.
For the first time, a majority (64%) of Republicans agree. This is an increase by 15 percentage points since 2015-DEC.
92% of Democrats agree. This is an increase by 7 percentage points since 2015-DEC.
78% of Independents agree. This is an increase by 4 percentage points since 2015-DEC.
However, majorities of Democrats (56%), Republicans (55%), and independents (53%) do not think it is likely that Congress will act on climate change in the next few years.
The poll's margin of error is ~+mn~3.5 percentage points (95% confidence).
The authors of the poll note that:
'The proportion of Americans who are very worried about global warming has more than tripled since its lowest point in 2011. Increasing numbers of Americans say they have personally experienced global warming and that the issue is personally important to them." 5
"Climate Concerns Increase; Most Republicans Now Acknowledge Change," Mommouth University, 2018-NOV-29, at: https://www.monmouth.edu/
The following reports in this section that discuss environment and climate change may be of interest to you:
Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.
Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.
Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.
Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.
Part 5:2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species.
Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.
Part 6:2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."
Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Con't). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.
Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth
Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.
Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.
Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.
Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 Promised Plans on Energy and the Environment.
Part 13: 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.
Part 14: 2017-JAN: Recent Climate Change Measurements!
Part 15:2017-JAN to APR:
Climate Change Debate is Changing. What if All the Earth's Glaciers Melted?
Part 16:2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Colombia. Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere Reaches New High.
Part 17:Studies of the Effects
of Sea-level Rise in California between Now and the Year 2100.
Part 18: President Trump Decided that the U.S. Will Quit the Paris Agreement.
Explosive Reactions to his Plan, nationally and globally.
Part 19: More Reactions to the U.S.
Withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Record high temperatures in SanFrancisco and elsewhere.
Part 20:2017-AUG/SEP : Group of 20 summit meeting, Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas. Is climate change increasing the
severity or frequency of hurricanes?
Part 21:2017-SEP: 2017-SEP: Can government regulations help? U.S. record high temperatures. Did God send Hurricane Harvey to attack TX?.
Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, GA. Hurricanes Jose & Maria.
Part 22: 2017-SEP/OCT: The most expensive recent hurricanes to attack the United States. Does God use Hurricanes to send a message?
Conflicts, climate change cause rise in hunger.
Part 23: 2017-OCT to 2017-DEC: All UN states have signed the Paris Agreement. Government report contradicts the President. Comment by
the Union of Concerned Scientists.
Part 24:2018-JAN to MAY: New temperature records. President signs bill increasing research."Onion's" amusing fake news. Sea levels rising; cities under water.
Climate change beliefs as function of age.
Proposed Mount Trumpmore project. Volcano in Hawaii. How global warming is affecting California.
Animal, Insect, & Bird Ranges Shrink.
Nutrients in rice reduced. California Governor's comments.
Part 25:2018-JUN & JUL: During 2018-JUN: A very few encouraging signs. Hurricanes slowing as winds increase. Changes in Antarctic ice and environment. Norway's growing season increased. A new world highest temperature. Future ocean levels.
Part 26:2018-JUL: New York City reports to the UN. Impacts of
humans burning up all our fossil energy. WWW.CLIMATECENTRAL.ORG's tools.
Death Valley, CA, sets new record. Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern lands. Hurricane Florence.
Part 27: 2018-AUG & SEP: Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern countries. Hurricane Florence attacks the Carolinas. Pat Robinson's "Shield of Protection" doesn't work.
Part 28: 2018-SEP & OCT: Trump Admin. predicts: 7ºF temperature
rise by the year 2099. Impact of climate change on women.Green Building Week & commitment. New IPCC report predicts a "Strong Risk of
as early as 2040.
Part 29: 2018-OCT & NOV: Southern Baptist Convention downplays IPCC Report. Climate changing Fall season. Ozone layer continues to heal.
Trump Confuses Weather
Part 30: 2018-NOV: Hope for people who have no access
to clean water. Trump Administration releases National Climate Assessment report.
Reactions to the report.
Part 31: 2018-DEC: How to lie about climate change. UN head repeats warning. Major report on Arctic climate. Greenhouse gases soar. Can climate scientists be trusted?
Part 32: 2019-JAN-MAR: 2019-JAN/FEB: Collecting plastic
trash from the"Great Pacific Garbage Patch."