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Climate Change. Part 34.
Denmark fights cow flatulence.
Conflict: Climate scientists & EPA.
1,000,000 species may go extinct:
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This topic is continued from the previous essay

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2019-FEB-28: Denmark fights cow flatulence:

All mammals fart. Some do more than others. It happens because of swallowed air, gas-producing food and drink, anxiety, childbirth, and the effects of aging. Humans typically do this 14 times a day. Cows are also mammals. They expel more methane gas than humans because they are much larger and heavier. But, of the total methane they produce, over 90% comes from their mouths in the form of burps.1 Methane is a major greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming/climate change.

Kate Torgovnick May, writing for said:

"According to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization, livestock — including cows, pigs, sheep and other animals — are responsible for about 14.5 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Cows are the primary offenders, and each animal releases 30 to 50 gallons a day on average. ... With an estimated 1.3 to 1.5 billion cows on the planet, that’s a whole lot of methane." 1

Denmark has committed to reducing greenhouse gasses by 40% by the year 2020. Their Danish Economic Council decided to take action against cow-produced methane by proposing a tax of 2,280 kroner (about US $344) yearly on each cow. 2 (Various web sites quote very different values.)

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2019-MAR-29: Disconnect between climate researchers and the EPA under the Trump Administration:

Andrew Wheeler heads the federal Environmental Protection Agency. In a recent interview, he said that global warming is not a problem at this time. He said:

"Most of the threats from climate change are 50 to 75 years out." 3

Climate researchers disagree. Joeri Rogelj, a climate scientist at the Imperial College London in the UK said:

"The next decade is really critical."

Drew Shindell, a climate scientist at Duke University in Durham, NC compares climate change to steering a huge ship. He said:

"You have to turn way in advance because it takes a long time."

Countries at the 2015 Paris climate accord agreed to limit future warming to "well below" 2º Celsius (about 3.6º Fahrenheit) over preindustrial temperatures, and to aim for a goal of 1.5º C (about 2.7º F). The 2018 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said that attaining the lower target would prevent more species from going extinct and would make it easier for humans to adapt to climate changes.

Rogelj wrote:

"Humans have already unleashed enough greenhouse gases to raise the planet's average temperature by about 1 degree C. At current rates, we will emit enough in the next 10 years to all but guarantee another half-degree of warming." 3

During the week of 2019-APR-01, climate scientists will meet in Scotland to prepare the next IPCC report.

Last year's report, based on hundred of scientific studies, found that"

  • By 2030, the level of worldwide emissions of greenhouse gases must drop to about half of 2010 levels, and

  • By about 2050, worldwide carbon emissions must drop to near zero,

if we are going to achive the 1.5º C goal for the average world temperature increase.

Lamontagne, a systems analyst at Tufts University in Medford and Somerville, MA, said that it is critical how well we manage to reduce emissions in the next decade, He said.

"Our actions today are going to lock future generations in to a climate that they'll have very little control over."

Rosen commented that reaching the target:

"... would be expensive, but theoretically feasible. The IPCC estimated that achieving a 1.5-degree world will require $2.4 trillion in clean energy investments every year until 2035. That's equivalent to 2.5 percent of the world's combined gross domestic product.

Lamontagne's team calculated the price tag could be as high as 3 percent or 4 percent of global GDP to max out at 2 degrees of warming by 2100."

"Failing to act also carries a hefty cost. One study estimated that 4 degrees of warming would rob the world economy of $23 trillion per year; another found that by 2100, unmitigated climate change will reduce global incomes by 23 percent. The toll could reach hundreds of billions of dollars per year in the U.S. alone, according to a 2018 report commissioned by Congress. ..."

"So far, countries' official pledges to reduce emissions under the Paris accord fall far short of what's needed to meet the 1.5-degree target."

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star 2019-MAY-10: UN report: One million species could become extinct:

The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), approved a summary of the 7th session of its IPBES Plenary, meeting in Paris. Chairperson, Sir Robert Watson, said:

The overwhelming evidence of the IPBES Global Assessment, from a wide range of different fields of knowledge, presents an ominous picture. The health of ecosystems on which we and all other species depend is deteriorating more rapidly than ever. We are eroding the very foundations of our economies, livelihoods, food security, health and quality of life worldwide.

The Report also tells us that it is not too late to make a difference, but only if we start now at every level from local to global. Through ‘transformative change’, nature can still be conserved, restored and used sustainably – this is also key to meeting most other global goals. By transformative change, we mean a fundamental, system-wide reorganization across technological, economic and social factors, including paradigms, goals and values.

The member States of IPBES Plenary have now acknowledged that, by its very nature, transformative change can expect opposition from those with interests vested in the status quo, but also that such opposition can be overcome for the broader public good."

The summary draws on 145 expert authors from 50 countries with inputs from another 310 authors,and review of about 15,000 scientific and government sources. including indigenous and local knowledge. Co-chair Prof. Sandra Díaz from Argentina said:

"Biodiversity and nature’s contributions to people are our common heritage and humanity’s most important life-supporting ‘safety net.’ But our safety net is stretched almost to breaking point. The diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems, as well as many fundamental contributions we derive from nature, are declining fast, although we still have the means to ensure a sustainable future for people and the planet."

The Report finds that around 1 million animal and plant species are now threatened with extinction, many within decades. This is more than has ever ocurred before in human history!

It states:

"The average abundance of native species in most major land-based habitats has fallen by at least 20%, mostly since 1900. More than 40% of amphibian species, almost 33% of reef forming corals and more than a third of all marine mammals are threatened. The picture is less clear for insect species, but available evidence supports a tentative estimate of 10% being threatened. At least 680 vertebrate species had been driven to extinction since the 16th century and more than 9% of all domesticated breeds of mammals used for food and agriculture had become extinct by 2016, with at least 1,000 more breeds still threatened.

Ecosystems, species, wild populations, local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are shrinking, deteriorating or vanishing. The essential, interconnected web of life on Earth is getting smaller and increasingly frayed. This loss is a direct result of human activity and constitutes a direct threat to human well-being in all regions of the world." 4

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This topic continues in the next essay, with developments later during 2019

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References used:

The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.

  1. Kate Torgovnick May, "Methane isn’t just cow farts; it’s also cow burps (and other weird facts you didn’t know about this potent greenhouse gas)," Ideas.Ted.Com, 2018-SEP-22, at:
  2. Stephen Gadd, "Farmers up in arms over proposed methane tax on cows," CPHPost Online, 2018-SEP-28, at:
  3. Julia Rosen, "Why the next decade will be critical in the fight against climate change," ArcaMax, 2019-MAR-29, at:
  4. "Media Release: Nature’s Dangerous Decline ‘Unprecedented’; Species Extinction Rates ‘Accelerating’," Ipbes, 2019-MAY-04, at:

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The following reports in this section that discuss environment and climate change may be of interest to you:

  • Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.

  • Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.

  • Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.

  • Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.

  • Part 5: 2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species. Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.

  • Part 6: 2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."

  • Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Con't). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.

  • Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth

  • Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.

  • Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.

  • Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.

  • Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 Promised Plans on Energy and the Environment.

  • Part 13: 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.

  • Part 14: star 2017-JAN: Recent Climate Change Measurements!

  • Part 15:2017-JAN to APR: Climate Change Debate is Changing. What if All the Earth's Glaciers Melted?

  • Part 16: 2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Colombia. Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere Reaches New High.

  • Part 17: Studies of the Effects of Sea-level Rise in California between Now and the Year 2100.

  • Part 18: President Trump Decided that the U.S. Will Quit the Paris Agreement. Explosive Reactions to his Plan, nationally and globally.

  • Part 19: More Reactions to the U.S. Withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Record high temperatures in San Francisco and elsewhere.

  • Part 20:2017-AUG/SEP : Group of 20 summit meeting, Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas. Is climate change increasing the severity or frequency of hurricanes?

  • Part 21: 2017-SEP: 2017-SEP: Can government regulations help? U.S. record high temperatures. Did God send Hurricane Harvey to attack TX?. Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, GA. Hurricanes Jose & Maria.

  • Part 22: 2017-SEP/OCT: The most expensive recent hurricanes to attack the United States. Does God use Hurricanes to send a message? Conflicts, climate change cause rise in hunger.

  • Part 23: 2017-OCT to 2017-DEC: All UN states have signed the Paris Agreement. Government report contradicts the President. Comment by the Union of Concerned Scientists.

  • Part 24: 2018-JAN to MAY: New temperature records. President signs bill increasing research."Onion's" amusing fake news. Sea levels rising; cities under water. Climate change beliefs as function of age. Proposed Mount Trumpmore project. Volcano in Hawaii. How global warming is affecting California. Animal, Insect, & Bird Ranges Shrink. Nutrients in rice reduced. California Governor's comments.

  • Part 25: 2018-JUN & JUL: During 2018-JUN: A very few encouraging signs. Hurricanes slowing as winds increase. Changes in Antarctic ice and environment. Norway's growing season increased. A new world highest temperature. Future ocean levels.

  • Part 26: 2018-JUL: New York City reports to the UN. Impacts of humans burning up all our fossil energy. WWW.CLIMATECENTRAL.ORG's tools.
    Death Valley, CA, sets new record. Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern lands. Hurricane Florence.

  • Part 27: 2018-AUG & SEP: Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern countries. Hurricane Florence attacks the Carolinas. Pat Robinson's "Shield of Protection" doesn't work.

  • Part 28: 2018-SEP & OCT: Trump Admin. predicts: 7ºF temperature rise by the year 2099. Impact of climate change on women. Green Building Week & commitment. New IPCC report predicts a "Strong Risk of Crisis as early as 2040.

  • Part 29: 2018-OCT & NOV: Southern Baptist Convention downplays IPCC Report. Climate changing Fall season. Ozone layer continues to heal.
    Trump Confuses Weather & Climate.

  • Part 30: 2018-NOV: Hope for people who have no access to clean water. Trump Administration releases National Climate Assessment report. Reactions to the report.

  • Part 31: 2018-DEC: How to lie about climate change. UN head repeats warning. Major report on Arctic climate. Greenhouse gases soar. Can climate scientists be trusted?

  • Part 32: 2019-JAN-MAR: 2019-JAN/FEB: Collecting plastic trash from the"Great Pacific Garbage Patch."

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Copyright © 2019 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally posted: 2019-JAN-10
Latest update: 2019-JUN-26
Author: B.A. Robinson

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