Climate Change. Part 35.
2019-MAY to 2019-SEP:
CO2 levels reach new heights.
Potential water shortage.
Temperature records broken.
Canadian province shrinks.
Canadian Parliament declares
a national climate emergency.
Ominous report in Nature.
Landmark scientific report.
2019-MAY-12: Carbon Dioxide levels reach new heights:
CO2 levels in the Earth's atmosphere have fluctuated between about 170 to 300 ppm (parts per million) over the interval from 800,000 years ago up until the industrial age began in the 18th century CE. It is the gas that is most responsible for global warming. The level has increased rapidly since.
Current CO2 levels are routinely measured at the top of Mauna Loa, on the island of Hawaii. 1
The carbon dioxide level in the Earth's atmosphere exceeded 415 parts per million there for the first time in at least 800,000 years. 2 It has been increasing about 2.5 ppm per year in recent years. But the increase between 2018 and 2019 is expected to be about 3.0 ppm.
Interior Secretary David Bernhardt oversees about 20% of the land area in the U.S. When Matt Cartwright (D-PA) questioned him about the CO2 milestone during a hearing of the House Natural Resources Committee, He said that:
"I didn’t see that particular fact. ...I haven't lost any sleep over it."
Rep. Jared Huffman (D-CA) said:
"An overwhelming consensus of the world’s climate scientists are losing sleep. It is a hair-on-fire crisis for them." 3
Average Carbon Dioxide levels at Mauna Loa: Years 2015 to 2019:
Carbon Dioxide level is mesured at an altitude of 3,400 meters (11,145 feet) above sea level on the "Big Island" in a northern subtropic area of Hawaii (a.k.a. Paradise).
2019-MAY-29: Possible future water shortage in Asia:
About 221 million people (3% of the world's population), depend upon glaciers melting in the high mountain ranges in Asia -- including the Himalayas -- for their water supply. However, these glaciers are shrinking. Water security may ocurr within a few decades.
Glaciologist Hamish D. Pritchard of the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge wrote an article in Nature on MAY-29. The study found that If nothing is done to reduce greenhouse gas production, the annual melt water flowing from the glaciers could be noticeable reduced by the year 2090. 4
2019-MAY-31: World-wide temperature records broken recently:
The world's hottest five years on record have been the last five years: 2014 to 2018. 2019 is expected to continue this trend and beccome one of the six hottest years on record. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are the highest level in 3 million years. Thus, this trend is likely to continue. 5
Angola, Australia, France, Germany, Kenya, Poland, Russia, Vietnam have all set national all-time high temperature records in 2019.
2019-JUN-13: Prince Edward Island (PEI): Canada's smallest province is shrinking:
According to Adam Fenech, director of the University of PEI Climate Lab:
"Everything is going against us."
The island is made of sandstone and sand. It is slowly washing into the sea, bit by bit.
His lab found that over the next 90 years:
"... 1,000 existing homes, eight barns, seven gazebos, 42 garages, 17 lighthouses, 146 commercial buildings, 50 kilometres of roads, and one wind turbine were vulnerable."
Moira Welsh, an investigative reporter for the Toronto Star wrote:
"Erosion is natural. Historical. What’s different now, he says, is the ocean. Water levels are rising. So are ocean temperatures. Their extra heat can add fuel to storms, creating powerful, surging waves that smash against the coast and rip it away.
"Winter ice used to appear on the coast in late November and spend the winter as a buffer for the shoreline. The sea ice came this year, Fenech says, but over the previous few winters it was hard to find. It used to form along the beaches or the base of soaring red cliffs, growing thick, extending into the ocean so that when a storm came the ice took the brunt of its energy, not the sandstone." 7
2019-JUN-18: Canadian Parliament declares a national climate emergency:
Catherine McKenna (Liberal), a MP (Member of Parliament) and the Minister of Environment and Climate Change, introduced a motion to ParliamentI that declared:
"... Canada is in a national climate emergency which requires, as a response, that Canada commit to meeting its national emissions target under the Paris Agreement and to making deeper reductions in line with the Agreement's objective of holding global warming below two degrees Celsius and pursuing efforts to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius."
2 ºC is equivalent to 3.6 ºF; 1.5 ºC is equivalent to 2.7 ºF.
All members of Parliament (MPs) from the Progressive Conservative party and Maxime Bernier, the leader of the People's Party of Canada voted against the motion. The Liberals, New Democrats, Bloc Quebecois and Green Party MPs all voted in favor. The motion passed 186 to 63. 8
A federal election is scheduled for mid-2019-OCT. Climate change may have a significant impact on the vote and the distribution of seats among the parties. Andrew Leach, a Canadian energy and environmental economist summarizes his impression of the main political parties' climate policies:
- "Greens' climate plan adds up to Mission: Improbable
- Conservative climate plan is cloaked in mystery, choked with irony
- NDP climate plan tries (and fails) to carve out middle ground
- Liberals' climate balancing act: The world is watching." 9
2019-JUL-01: Ominous report in Nature magazine:
Carolyn Wike, writing in Science News, talked about the target of limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC by the end of the current century:
"The world’s existing power plants, industrial equipment, vehicles and other CO₂-emitters are on track to pump out enough carbon dioxide to blow past that target by midcentury, researchers report July 1 in Nature. Add in future power plants that are already planned, permitted or under construction, and we could emit enough by 2033 to raise average global atmospheric temperatures by 1.5 degrees, the researchers say." 10
2019-SEP-13: UN leader calls for greater effort against global warming:
Shantanu Mukherjee, of the U.N.’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs, said that the world leaders attending the the UN's Climate Action Summit must increase their efforts to avert a global climate change calamity. He said that politicians must start:
“... recognising the impact of science and policy and strengthening it among the people who are here so that it becomes a reliable basis for decision-making. ... "
"If there is a commitment among the leaders who come here -- even some of them -- that they will take this seriously and use it to inform their policy, which we will support with scientific evidence, that would be great.”
Environmentalists have expressed fears of wavering commitments among some world leaders to limiting climate change, including such skeptics as United States President Donald Trump and Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro. 11
2019-SEP-23: Landmark scientific report submitted to the UN Climate Action Summit:
A group of leading climate science groups, including the Meteorological Organization (WMO), Global Atmosphere Watch, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Carbon Project, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Future Earth, Earth League and the Global Framework for Climate Services, have produced a major new report that documents an increasing gap between previously accepted environmental targets and actual changes. The report's title is "United in Science," and has been forwarded to The Science Advisory Group to the UN Secretary-General’s Climate Action Summit. The report said that:
"... provides a unified assessment of the state of our Earth system under the increasing influence of anthropogenic climate change, of humanity’s response thus far and of the far-reaching changes that science projects for our global climate in the future. The scientific data and findings presented in the report represent the very latest authoritative information on these topics. It highlights the urgent need for the development of concrete actions that halt global warming and the worst effects of climate change."
- The five-year interval from 2015 to 2019 is expected to be the warmest such interval recorded in history.
- Widespread and long-lasting heatwaves.
- Record-breaking fires.
- Severe tropical cyclones, floods and drought.
- Record breaking loss of summer sea-ice in the Arctic.
- Record breaking loss of glacier melting worldwide.
- Increase in the rate of rise of sea levels.
- A 26% increase of ocean water acidity since the start of the industrial era.
- The level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, including Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide, have all increased.
- The usage of fossil fuel continues to grow.
- Greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow.
- Climate goals set in the past are becoming unreachable." 12
This topic continues in the next essay, with developments later during 2019
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyper links are not necessarily still active today.
- "Earth System Research Laboratory," NOAA, at: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/
- Ryan W. Miller & Doyle Rice, "Carbon dioxide levels hit landmark at 415 ppm, highest in human history," USA Today, 2019-MAY-13, at: https://www.usatoday.com/
- Chris D'Angelo, "Interior Chief On Soaring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: 'I Haven’t Lost Any Sleep’," Huffington Post, 2019-MAY-15, at: https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/
- Carolyn Gramling, "Himalayan glacier melting threatens water security for millions of people," Science News, 2019-MAY-29, at: https://www.sciencenews.org/
- "All the global temperature records broken in 2019, so far," Axios, 2019-MAY-31, at: https://www.axios.com/
- "Where is Prince Edward Island?, PEI Office of Immigration, 2017-JAN-24, at: https://www.princeedwardisland.ca/
- Moira Welsh, "The Seige of PEI, Toronto Star, 2019-JUN-13, at: http://projects.thestar.com/
- Rachel Aiello "Canada's House of Commons has declared a national climate emergency," CTV News, 2019-JUN-17, at: https://www.ctvnews.ca/
- Andrew Leach, "OPINION | Election 2019: A national reckoning on climate change, CBC, 2019-OCT-16, at: https://www.cbc.ca/
- Carolyn Wike, "CO2 emissions are on track to take us beyond 1.5 degrees of global warming," Science News, 2019-JUL-01, at: https://www.sciencenews.org/
- James Reini, "Leaders Must Start Taking Science Seriously – U.N.," Inter Press Service, 2019-SEP-23, at: http://www.ipsnews.net/
- "Landmark 'United in Science' Report Informs Climate Action Summit," United Nations Climate Change, 2019-SEP-22, at: https://unfccc.int/
The following reports in this section that discuss environment and climate change may be of interest to you:
- Part 1: 2013: Quotes. Background. Bay of Bengal incident. Decline in Canada's arctic ice cover.
- Part 2: 2013/2014: Canada loses its seasons. 316 North American cities to be under water.
- Part 3: 2013/2014: Christians, Republicans' & Democrats' beliefs differ. Volcanoes cause pauses in global warming. Americans' views on climate change.
- Part 4: 2014/2015: How Americans viewed climate change. HFC limits. Groups abandoning ALEC. Paris Conference reaches agreement.
- Part 5: 2016-FEB to AUG: Climate change concerns: Ocean levels rising. Displacement of animal species.
Greenland glacier melting. "Third Pole" glaciers melting.
- Part 6: 2016-SEP: Flooding on the U.S. East coast. U.S. and China ratify the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. Pres. Obama: trends are "terrifying."
- Part 7: 2016-SEP: Obama comments on warming (Con't). 31 countries ratify Paris agreement. Trump zigzags on Climate Change.
- Part 8: 2016-Summer/Fall: Events showing that climate change is adversely affecting life on Earth
- Part 9: 2016-OCT: Did God send Hurricane Matthew as an anti-LGBT message to humanity? Alternate opinions. Hurricane Matthew re-enters Atlantic Ocean.
- Part 10: 2016-NOV: U.S. Costal real estate threatened. Rapid temperature rise in the Arctic. Very large poll about climate change.
- Part 11: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's climate change beliefs. New heads of federal government departments. Extinction of 11 species.
- Part 12: 2016-DEC: President-elect Trump's 16 Promised Plans on Energy and the Environment.
- Part 13: 2017-JAN: 2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record, Ever.
- Part 14: 2017-JAN: Recent Climate Change Measurements!
- Part 15:2017-JAN to APR:
Climate Change Debate is Changing. What if All the Earth's Glaciers Melted?
- Part 16: 2017-JAN to APR: Donald Trump Becomes President. EPA Foe Installed as Head of EPA! Hundreds Die During Flood in Colombia. Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere Reaches New High.
- Part 17: Studies of the Effects
of Sea-level Rise in California between Now and the Year 2100.
- Part 18: President Trump Decided that the U.S. Will Quit the Paris Agreement.
Explosive Reactions to his Plan, nationally and globally.
- Part 19: More Reactions to the U.S.
Withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Record high temperatures in San Francisco and elsewhere.
- Part 20:2017-AUG/SEP : Group of 20 summit meeting, Hurricane Harvey attacks Texas. Is climate change increasing the
severity or frequency of hurricanes?
- Part 21: 2017-SEP: 2017-SEP: Can government regulations help? U.S. record high temperatures. Did God send Hurricane Harvey to attack TX?.
Hurricane Irma attacks Caribbean, FL, SC, GA. Hurricanes Jose & Maria.
- Part 22: 2017-SEP/OCT: The most expensive recent hurricanes to attack the United States. Does God use Hurricanes to send a message?
Conflicts, climate change cause rise in hunger.
- Part 23: 2017-OCT to 2017-DEC: All UN states have signed the Paris Agreement. Government report contradicts the President. Comment by
the Union of Concerned Scientists.
- Part 24: 2018-JAN to MAY: New temperature records. President signs bill increasing research."Onion's" amusing fake news. Sea levels rising; cities under water.
Climate change beliefs as function of age.
Proposed Mount Trumpmore project. Volcano in Hawaii. How global warming is affecting California.
Animal, Insect, & Bird Ranges Shrink.
Nutrients in rice reduced. California Governor's comments.
- Part 25: 2018-JUN & JUL: During 2018-JUN: A very few encouraging signs. Hurricanes slowing as winds increase. Changes in Antarctic ice and environment. Norway's growing season increased. A new world highest temperature. Future ocean levels.
- Part 26: 2018-JUL: New York City reports to the UN. Impacts of
humans burning up all our fossil energy. WWW.CLIMATECENTRAL.ORG's tools.
Death Valley, CA, sets new record. Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern lands. Hurricane Florence.
- Part 27: 2018-AUG & SEP: Disappearing wetlands in Louisiana. Climate change affecting Northern countries. Hurricane Florence attacks the Carolinas. Pat Robinson's "Shield of Protection" doesn't work.
- Part 28: 2018-SEP & OCT: Trump Admin. predicts: 7ºF temperature
rise by the year 2099. Impact of climate change on women. Green Building Week & commitment. New IPCC report predicts a "Strong Risk of
as early as 2040.
- Part 29: 2018-OCT & NOV: Southern Baptist Convention downplays IPCC Report. Climate changing Fall season. Ozone layer continues to heal.
Trump Confuses Weather
- Part 30: 2018-NOV: Hope for people who have no access
to clean water. Trump Administration releases National Climate Assessment report.
Reactions to the report.
- Part 31: 2018-DEC: How to lie about climate change. UN head repeats warning. Major report on Arctic climate. Greenhouse gases soar. Can climate scientists be trusted?
- Part 32: 2019-JAN-MAR: 2019-JAN/FEB: Collecting plastic
trash from the"Great Pacific Garbage Patch."
Copyright © 2019 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally posted: 2019-JAN-10
Latest update: 2019-AUG-15
Author: B.A. Robinson