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Proofs 23 to 30 of a Spherical Earth.
Are Flat Earthers Creating a Hoax?

Part 10

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Earth in one's hand

The big debate: Is the shape of the Earth very
close to a sphere, is it as flat as a pancake?

Or is it another shape entirely?

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Proof 23 that the Earth is not flat: A live feed of the Earth's surface from the International Space Station (ISS):

Amazing Space once posted the live video signal from a NASA HDEV High Definition Earth Viewing Cameras aboard the International Space Station.

The curvature of the Earth was clearly visible as the Earth rotated below the camera. The Earth was seen to be clearly spherical in shape. However, most believers in a flat Earth probably assume that the video was an artificial creation by NASA that is continually being updated.

Unfortunately, NASA discontinued the live feeds from the ISS in 2017-SEP.


Amazing Space's "You Tube" channel stated:

"As the Space Station passes into a period of night every 45 mins video is unavailable - during this time, and other breaks in transmission, recorded footage is shown. When back in daylight the live stream of earth will recommence."

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The European Space Agency (ESA) provides a live map showing the path and current position of the International Space Station at: Also shown is part of the previous and next paths of the ISS about 90 minutes ago and 90 minutes in the future. A snapshot taken on 2016-DEC-03 at about 22 hours UT (5 PM ET) is shown below. At that time, the space station was just south of the western end of Australia as shown by the green circle and space station symbol:

ISS location   2

Attribution: from Google Maps.

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Are the Flat Earth followers sincere or perpetrating a hoax?:

The many "proofs" that the Earth is not flat as listed in this section are all easy to understand and are readily available on the Internet. Most people can understand them, and could replicate the proofs if they wished. In spite of this, many very lengthy You Tube videos and large web sites are available on the Internet that still promote Flat Earth.

Webmasters of flat earth web sites seem sincere. But the more that I study their thought processes it becomes increasingly obvious to me that their efforts may actually be a hoax. That is, they secretly realize that the Earth is spherical in shape, but they enjoy pulling our legs. They feed into many people's love for mysterious conspiracy theories.

Some indicator of the Flat Earth movement being a hoax are:

  • The editor of the Cosmic Convergence Research Group suggest that the whole Flat Earth movement is a CIA program, saying:

    "There is no greater example on the Internet today of inciting people of every ilk toward €throwing the baby out with the bath water€ than the utterly ludicrous phenomenon known as the Flat Earth Theory. What is truly shocking is the number of really smart and aware, well-intentioned and spiritually oriented individuals who are supporting this transparent pseudo-scientific sham. Truly, the CIA has outdone itself with this mind-scrambling endeavor." 3

  • Michael Wilmore, the vice president of the Flat Earth Society is quoted as saying:

    "The question of belief and sincerity is one that comes up a lot. If I had to guess, I would probably say that at least some of our members see the Flat Earth Society and Flat Earth Theory as a kind of epistemological exercise, whether as a critique of the scientific method or as a kind of €˜solipsism for beginners.€™ There are also probably some who thought the certificate would be kind of funny to have on their wall. That being said, I know many members personally, and I am fully convinced of their belief." 3

  • Karen Douglas, a psychologist at the University of Kent in the UK specializes in the study of of conspiracy theories. She commented:

    "It seems to me that these people do generally believe that the Earth is flat. I€™m not seeing anything that sounds as if they€™re just putting that idea out there for any other reason."

  • Eric Oliver and Tom Wood are political scientists at the University of Chicago. They have determined that about half of American adults support at least one conspiracy theory. Examples cited were the belief that the 9/11 terrorist attack was actually planned and executed by the U.S. government, and that President Kennedy was assassinated by a group of conspirators. Oliver has said:

    "Many people are willing to believe many ideas that are directly in contradiction to a dominant cultural narrative."

    He suggests that belief in conspiracies originate from magical thinking, when individuals believe that there are unseen forces at work. 4"

Webmaster's comment:

My guess is that a large minority of those in the Flat Earth movement sincerely believe that the Earth is truly flat, whereas the rest are really enjoying committing a hoax on the public.

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Proof 24 of a spherical Earth:

Discovery Channel performed two experiments on a TV program called "Flat Earth CRUSHED by Discovery Channel." The first involved a horizontal laser beam directed across a lake. The team used a laser at the shore, about 30 inches (75 cm) above lake level . A small boat, located in the lake close to the shore intercepted the laser beam part way up the side of the boat, at about the same height above the surface of the water as the laser was set up on the shore. The boat then moved three miles away from the laser. If the Earth is flat, then the lake would be level, and the beam would illuminate the same spot on side of the boat. Instead, the beam was found about six feet above the deck of the boat. The surface of the lake was clearly not flat, but follows the curvature of the Earth.

The second experiment replaced the laser at the shore of the lake with a telescope. A helicopter flew six miles away to the other shore and landed. If the Earth is flat, then the lake would also be flat, and the telescope would be able to see the landed helicopter. But it went out of sight as it descended towards the ground. The helicopter later rose vertically and became visible at the telescope on the other shore when it had reached an elevation of about 24 feet above the far shore.

One of the participants in the experiment was a man who had started the experiment believing that the Earth was flat. He was forced to have his belief adjusted by the evidence as a result of the experiments.

One of the neat features of this experiment is that a single person or a small group could replicate the experiment at a low cost per person. Simply performing one of the two parts of the experiment using a readily available telescope would be sufficient to prove a spherical Earth.


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Proofs 25 to 29 of a spherical Earth: Resources on You Tube:

You can go to and search for: earth sphere proof. As of 2017-FEB-15, the first 11 videos listed give many proofs that the earth is not flat. One has over 1.8 million views.

If you are short of time, then the You Tube video called: "100% Proof that Earth is ROUND (Flat Earth Theory Debunked In 44 Seconds)" may be worth watching. The video shows three simple proofs of a round Earth in 44 seconds.

Another excellent video is a bit longer at about 4.5 minutes.

A longer video -- 22:30 minutes long -- goes into great detail debunking the video: "Flat Earth in 5 Minutes:"


Also, consider the video by The Hub titled: "10 Things That Would Happen If The Earth Was FLAT:"


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Proof 30 of a spherical Earth: An experiment by National Geographic:

The experiment is essentially a small scale repeat of one by Aristotle:

Aristotle experiment 8

The test is quite simple to perform: On a boat, hold up a large sign that featuring six horizontal stripes of contrasting colors. Total investment is very small: only enough to make a sign, and rent a boat with an outboard motor. Send the boat away from the shore of a wide lake and observe the stripes on the sign.

  • If the Earth is flat, then the surface of the lake will also be flat. As the boat travels to the opposite shore, you will continue to be able to see the boat, the sign, and ALL OF the stripes. However, if a wide lake is chosen -- as in this video -- the sign and boat will get progressively smaller over time. Thus, a telescope or binoculars will prove helpful so that you can count the stripes and verify that they are all visible.

  • If the Earth is spherical, and the lake is wide enough, then the surface of the water will also be spherical. The boat, as viewed from the shore, will go over the horizon. and appear to gradually sink into the water. If the boat continues toward the opposite shore, the bottom stripe will disappear from sight. Going further will cause more stripes to disappear.

In the video, there were many believers in a flat Earth present to observe the events. They observed the experiment that clearly showed the disappearing stripes and thus proved that the Earth is not flat. But when their leader, Mark Sargent asked them if they still believe in a flat earth, they seem to have all remained believers, in spite of the evidence before their eyes.


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Note to any believers in a flat earth who read this section:

If you have any arguments that would disprove any of proofs of a spherical earth listed in this section, please email them to us. You can use the "Contact Us" icon at the bottom of this essay. We would like to clear up any ambiguities and refine the proofs to make them more convincing. Alternately, if you know of any solid proofs of a flat earth -- other than suggesting massive conspiracy theories, please pass them along to us as well.

As of 2019-APR-07, this essay has been online for over 30 months. Although we typically receive hundreds of thousands of visitors a month to our web site, we have not received any emails from flat earth believers.

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RELATED FEATURE ESSAYS on Cosmology, the study of the origin & structure of the universe:

  • Part 1: Overview about cosmological beliefs. The Ancient Pagan view originating in Sumer.

  • Part 2: The revised Pagan view, as generally accepted within early Christianity.

  • Part 3: Greek Pagan cosmology (Continued). Modern view of the solar system. Church taught an Earth-centered system. The big hoax: that the church taught a flat Earth during the Middle Ages.

  • Part 4: A modern-day return to the belief that the Earth is flat, and that there is a massive, false conspiracy teaching that the Earth is similar to a sphere

  • Part 5: Three more proofs that the Earth is more or less spherical and not flat.

  • Part 6: Five more proofs that the Earth is more or less spherical and not flat

  • Part 7: Arguments about the Earth's shape. A weak proof of a spherical Earth. More Old Testament passages about the Earth's shape.

  • Part 8: Passages from the New Testament about the Earth's shape. Proofs 13 & 14 that the Earth is not flat.

  • Part 9: Proofs 15 to 22 that the Earth is not flat.

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References used:

The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.

  1. "NASA ISS live stream of Earth as seen from space," You Tube, at: (Discontinued in 2017-SEP).
  2. "Where is the International Space Station?," European Space Agency [ESA], at:
  3. "Flat Earth Hoax: Began As a Ridiculous Farce to See How Gullible People Would Be," 2016-JAN-06, at:
  4. "NASA Got Sick of Moon Landing Conspirators and Released 10,000 Photos From Apollo Mission," Before It's News, 2016-AUG-12, at:
  5. Alex Chertnik, "Flat Earth [concept] CRUSHED by Discovery Channel," You Tube, 2016-AUG-23, at:
  6. "Flat Earth Falsities - "Flat Earth in 5 Minutes" Debunked," Odd TV, 2017-JAN-22, at:
  7. "10 Things That Would Happen If The Earth Was FLAT," The HUB, 2017-JUL-16, at:
  8. Frame grab from the following video:
  9. "Flat Earth vs. Round Earth," National Geographic video on You Tube, 2019-JAN-15, at: This video received over 1.8 million views by 2019-AUG-07.

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Copyright 2016 & 2018 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Originally written: 2016-DEC-03
Latest update and review: 2018-APR-07
Author: B.A. Robinson

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