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Religious Tolerance logo

A treatise against religious intolerance by Richard Dixon

Part 1: "Not in my name"

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Introduction and perspective:

Ever since the advent of 9/11 and the subsequent backlash against Arabs and Muslims alike, the writing of this essay for me has been both a spiritual journey and a pilgrimage for justice and sanity. It has been a personal appeal for us to bring out the essence of good in all our humanity. It has been a voice in the wilderness declaring that we are all of God's children and that no one speaks for God but God himself. He is the redeemer, protector, all-powerful, the light and the way.

I dedicate this essay to those who have fallen victim to the terrible plight of terrorism both in this country and around the world. My heart goes out to you. I know that I can't begin to feel your pain, anguish, and suffering. I pray to almighty God that he will heal you spiritually, emotionally, physically, and mentally.

To the men & women in uniforms in New York City, Washington, DC,  Fairfax County, Virginia, Somerset, Pennsylvania, and our Armed Forces, I salute you because you are indeed my heroes. On that faithful day on September 11, you were there for us in all that misery and devastation.

To my fellow American Muslim brothers and sisters who have endured this terrible wave of backlash, I stand with you side by side.

To the likes of Timothy McVeigh and Osama Bin Laden: You will not win because people of good conscience from various races, creeds, cultures, and religions will stand up as a united front to your evil oppression.

I also would like to thank Neria Harish Hebbar, MD and the brothers and sisters of Indian A Study In Diversity ( for allowing me the opportunity to reprint his poem entitled "Lest Bigotry Consume Us All. In addition, I would
also like to thank the brothers and sisters of the Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) and their project Website called ( for sending me both a copy of the Holy Qur'an and a Concordance. Without which I would have never really grasped the full meaning of Islam and its message of peace, tolerance, and understanding.

Blessed In The Name Of God Almighty,
Richard L. Dixon.

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"Not in my name:" A treatise against religious intolerance:

In The Name Of The Most Merciful God:

I have read with dismay and have been appalled by the insensitive and intolerant remarks that some Americans have made against the religion of Islam and my fellow American Muslim brothers and sisters. Their rhetoric has a racist and warlike tone to them. During a time that we as Americans should be united against the extremist fringe Islamist terrorist like Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda, you seek to drive a wedge of fear between us by condemning a whole group of innocent individuals. Some of the remarks to which have appeared in the media are repeated below:

bullet In a 2001-NOV-20 dedication of a chapel in North Carolina Evangelist Frank Graham said the following about Islam:

" a very evil and wicked religion.. the God of Islam is not the same God. He's not the Son of God of the Christian or Judeo-Christian faith. It's a different God, and I believe it is a very evil and wicked religion.. I don't believe this is a wonderful, peaceful religion.. when you read the Koran and read the verses from the Koran, it instructs the killing of the infidel, for those who are non-Muslim." 1

bullet One week later, on 2001-NOV-28 Reverend James Meredith of the Southern Baptist Convention "urged his 16 million members to fast and pray for Muslims so God will miraculously reveal himself through Jesus Christ to Muslims on December 16, the last day of Ramadan, Islam's holy month. Just as they can pray and fast, we want to pray and fast that they will find the true way to heaven, and this is through Jesus Christ said Merritt." 2 He continued: "There is the idea that we all worship the same God at these interfaith meetings and we do not. If Jesus Christ is the only way to heaven, the only true religion therefore must by Christianity. Every other religion gives a false hope of having a relationship with God. That's not what I say, that's what Jesus says." 3
bullet It wasn't long thereafter that Reverend Maury Davis, Pastor of Cornerstone Church in Nashville, TN was reported as saying:

"I want to go on record as telling you that I believe the greatest threat to the American way of life, to the Constitution of the United States of America and to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, is the religion of Islam as it stands today." The reporter commented that "Davis admitted that he has never read the Koran but relied on others who have written about the religion." 4

bullet Dr. Pat Robertson of CBN'S 700 Club characterized Arab and Muslim Immigrants and citizens as "a veritable infestation of America with violent subversive Muslims...our immigration policies are now so skewed towards the Middle East and away from Europe that we have introduced these people into our midst and undoubtedly there are terrorist cells all over them. They want to coexist until they can control, dominate, and then if need be destroy." 5
bullet Reverend Jerry Vine, also of the Southern Baptist Convention, said of Islam: "Islam was founded by Mohammed, a demon possessed pedophile who had 12 wives and his last one was a nine-year old girl." 6 in a the 2002-JUN-12 episode of of the "Crossfire" program on CNN news, Dr. Jerry Falwell of Liberty University stood behind the Reverend Vine's comments. Falwell said:

"I'll tell you what he did. I'll tell you what he did, I'll let you decide if he's a pedophile. Among his many wives, and no Muslim scholar denies this, he had a wife who was given to him-betrothed to him at age six by his best friend, Java Bacar (ph), and he-at age nine, when she was nine consummated the marriage. Now in a civilized society when a 54 year old man consummates a marriage with a nine-year old girl, I think it is reasonable to believe that to say that pedophilia is not taking it beyond the limits of reality." 7

Since the tragic attacks on our country on 9/11 we are indeed living in perilous times. There are increasing incidents of racial attacks against Muslims, Arabs, Jews or anybody else from a Middle Eastern or Asian background. Shortly after 9/11, there were 520 documented violent incidents of terror against Arab and Muslim Americans. The remarks against Islam and Muslims in general may well have helped to fan the flames of hate that are now threatening to engulf our country. The comments do not promote for religious tolerance, which has been an integral part of our country's history. I truly believe that they are setting the stage for a clash of civilizations between Christianity and Islam. Hussein Ibish of The American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee validated this point brilliantly in his debate against Jerry Falwell in the same Crossfire episode on June 12, 2002. Ibish said:

"They are doing it because I think in many cases these are fundamentalists dispensationalists who yearn for Armageddon. They like Bin Laden. They have the same agenda. They want to promote a generalized conflict between the Islamic world and the West. They are trying to stoke the fires of hatred and fear. They want to provoke a conflict. That's why they're being so insulting, so outrageous and so provocative. It is in fact.. the analogue of the kind of hateful rhetoric that you see also in the Middle East, and all of it is wrong and bad." 7

The FBI in its report on domestic terrorist cults and right-wing religious groups entitled Project Megiddo: pointed out the danger that some radical Conservative Christian faith groups pose to Middle East Peace:

"There is general concern among Israeli officials that Jewish and Islamic extremists may react violently to the influx of Christians, particularly near the Temple Mount. The primary concern is that extreme millennial cults will engage in proactive violence designed to hasten the Second Coming of Christ. Perhaps the most likely scenario involves an attack on the Al-Aqsa Mosque or the Dome of the Rock. Some millennial cults hold that these structures must be destroyed so that the Jewish Temple can be rebuilt, which they see as a prerequisite for the return of the Messiah. Additionally, several religious cults have already made inroads into Israel, apparently in preparation for what they believe to be the end times."

It is beyond the scope of this document to assess the potential repercussions from an attack on Jewish or Islamic holy sites in Jerusalem. It goes without saying, however, that an attack on the Dome of the Rock or the Al-Aqsa Mosque would have very serious implications. In segments of the Islamic world, close political and cultural ties between Israel and the United States are often perceived as symbolic of anti-Islamic policies by the Western World. Attacks on Islamic holy sites in Jerusalem, particularly by Christian or Jewish extremists, are likely to be perceived by Islamic extremists as attacks on Islam itself. Finally, the possibility exists that Islamic extremist groups will capitalize upon the huge influx of foreigners into Jerusalem and engage in a symbolic attack. 8

Economist and presidential candidate Lyndon Larouche predicted the outcome of a war between Christianity and Islam:

"If these things are allowed to continue this kind of war which they've got young Bush tied into right now, then I assure you, given the realities of the economic situation, given the military realities, given the political realities, you will not have civilized life on this planet for generations yet to come: a dark age for all of humanity." 10

Lost in the controversy has been Islam itself. Many in the West have failed to grasp the its true nature, its noble purpose, and how it fits into the promulgation of mankind. One cannot really appreciate the beauty, wonder, and sheer simplicity of this glorious religion without knowing the history and tenets of the Islamic Faith.

Islam means "submission to the Will of God." In its ethical sense Islam signifies striving after the ideal. A Muslim is one who submits to the Will of God. Islam and Muslim derive from the same world as the Arabic for peace. The traditional Muslim greeting is "Peace be unto you." Islam offers hope for salvation to the righteous and God-fearing of all religions. Muslims believe in the Divine Revelations of many prophets including Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, but do not believe that God assumed human form. The Qur'an, Muslims believe, is God's Word and Final Revelation to The Prophet Muhammad. 11

There are five Pillars to Islam that every devout Muslim must adhere to,
they are:

  1. Shahadah -- the first of the five basic foundations -- is the Arabic declaration, knowingly and voluntarily, of: "La ilaha illal lahu Muhammadur rasulul lah." "There is no god except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." This declaration is the basis of all actions in Islam. The other basic duties follow from this affirmation.
  2. Salah --compulsory prayer -- is offered five times a day. It is a practical demonstration of faith, and keeps a believer in touch with her/his Creator. The benefits of Salah are far-reaching, long lasting and immeasurable. It develops in a believer the qualities of self-discipline, steadfastness and obedience to the Truth, leading him/her to be patient, honest, and truthful in the affairs of her life.
  3. Zakah -- welfare contribution -- is a compulsory payment from a Muslim's annual       savings. It can only be spent on helping the poor, the needy, and the oppressed,       and for the general uplifting of society. Zakah is one of the fundamental principles of Islamic economy, which insures an equitable society where everyone has a right to contribute and share.
  4. Sawm is the annual obligatory fasting during the month of Ramadan - the ninth       month of the Islamic lunar calendar. A Muslim every day of this month, refrains from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex, from dawn to sunset. Sawm develops a believer's moral and spiritual standard and keeps him away from selfishness, greed, extravagance and other vices. Sawm is an annual training program that increases a Muslim's determination to fulfill his obligation to the Almighty Lord.
  5. Hajj -- the pilgrimage to the House of Allah -- is an annual event. It is obligatory on those     Muslims who can afford to undertake it, and whose health permits it, at least once in their lifetime. It is a journey to the "House of Allah" (Al-Ka'bah) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. Hajj symbolizes the unity of humankind; Muslims from every race and nationality assemble together in equality and fraternity to worship their Lord. 12

There are approximately 1.6 billion men, women, and child who adhere to the Islamic faith. They come from every continent on the Globe. Within the United States alone Islamic groups estimate that there are six to seven million individuals who call themselves Muslims.

Many western religious leaders have failed to grasp the similarities among Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. That being, we are all descendants of the great prophet Abraham and that God has made each and every one of us in his own image regardless of race, creed, or color.

The fundamental concept which needs to be emphasized is that humans are created in the image of the Creator of the universe. This defines the individual as different than any animal. That each individual has, with the cognitive powers of reason, a power of creativity, which no animal has. And therefore, each human being is born good, or at least
redeemable to good; and each human being is a life, which is sacred in the eyes of the Creator because we embody the quality of the Creator. 13

Long before the terrible plights against humanity such as slavery, the inquisition, and the Holocaust, the religion of Islam was and still is the beacon of universal brotherhood that the world is desperately trying to seek out. History has proven wrong the teaching that Islam is a religion of war and violence. Islam has always been about respect and tolerance. Since the beginning of the Crusades (starting in 1095 under the decree of Pope Urban II and Pope Innocent III thereafter) to the present 21st century, there has been a concerted effort by some Christian leaders to wage a campaign of disinformation, economical pressure, political influence, military might, colonialism, and religious indoctrination with the goal of reducing the influence of Islam throughout the world.

Despite the presence of violence in many regions of the world ranging from Ireland to Lebanon to the pacific Basin and involving many religions from Christianity to Hinduism, The Western world associates Islam more than any other religion with violence. The Muslim conquest of Spain, Crusades-which were not begun by Muslims, and the Ottoman domination of Eastern Europe has provided a historical memory of Islam as being related to force and power. Moreover, the upheavals of the past few decades in the Middle East have only reinforced the ideal prevalent in the West that in some special way Islam is related to violence. 14

Islam is also about moderation and respect for humanity. The lives of all humans are sacred. It has never espoused hatred or attacks on innocent human beings. It is against the very character of the great prophet Mohammad to preach terrorism and the harming of innocent people. Even in war, Islamic law states that the preservation of noncombatants should be preserved at all cost.

Islamic law opposes all uses of force in this sense except in the cause of war or for punishment of criminals in accordance with the Shari'a. Even in war, however, the inflicting of any injury to women and children is forbidden, as is the use of force against civilians. Only fighters in the field of battle must be confronted with force it is only against them that injurious physical force can be used. Inflicting injuries outside of this context or in the punishment of criminals according to the dictum of the Shari'a and the views of a judge is completely forbidden by Islamic law.15

The Holy Quran is very clear about the unnecessary taking of human life: "On that account: We ordained for the Children Of Israel that if anyone slew a person-unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land. It would as if he slew the whole people. And if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people." 16

Throughout the ages, Islamic civilization has proven to be a haven for other religious minorities fleeing religious persecution. The Muslims rulers of those times practiced the highest forms of compassion, tolerance, and pacifism towards their subjects. Whether it was India, Spain (Andalusia), The Arabian Peninsula or Ancient Palestine. In these societies, the highest levels of culture were advanced in the arts, sciences, mathematics, medicine, and commerce. The great orientalist, lecturer, and writer Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall espoused the role and importance that religious tolerance has played in Islamic history:He wrote: "There is no doubt that, in the eyes of history, religious toleration is the highest evidence of culture in a people. Let no Muslim, when looking on the ruin of the Muslim realm which as compassed through the agency of these very peoples whom the Muslims had tolerated and protected through the centuries. Let no Muslim seeing this, imagine that toleration is a weakness in Islam." 17

Under the rule of the Great Caliph of Palestine Umar, Muslims brought civilization to Jerusalem and all of Palestine. Instead of beliefs that showed no respect for other people's sacred values, and which killed them simply out of differences of belief, there reigned the just, tolerant, and moderate culture of Islam. After its capture by Umar, Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived together in peace and harmony in Palestine. Muslims never tried to use force to make people convert, although some non-Muslims did so of their own free will. 18

It is quite evident based on the facts that I have presented, that with the advent of Islam upon the world scene, no other religion up to that point (in its purest form) had espoused the principles of universal brotherhood, compassion, tolerance, and human rights.

According to the Islamic Council's declaration in the year 2002, "Islam gave to mankind an ideal code of human rights fourteen centuries ago. These rights aim at conferring honour and dignity on mankind and eliminating  exploitation, oppression, and injustice. Human rights in Islam are firmly rooted in the belief that God, and God alone, is the lawgiver and the source of all human rights. Due to their divine origin, no ruler, government, assembly or authority can curtail or violate in any way the human rights conferred by God, nor can they be surrendered." 19

The idea that comes closest to the Islamic interpretation of a code of human rights is the American form of constitutional government. Muslims in this country have had the freedom to demonstrate the true nature of Islam because of the freedoms that are not necessarily forthcoming in some repressive Muslim Countries.

It is unfortunate that human rights are being trampled upon with impunity in many countries of the world, including some Muslim countries. Such violations are a matter of serious concern and are arousing the conscience of more and more people throughout the world. 20

Since the advent of colonialism, the traditional educational institutions that were used to foster a more mainstream form of Islam was destroyed so that it was easier to rule the inhabitants with an iron rule by the European Imperialists. The end results were an uneducated populace, dictatorial rulers who cared more for themselves then the people, and individuals who were allowed to make individual interpretations of Islamic Law that were inconsistent with centuries of Islamic traditions and customs.   Harun Yahya in his book "Islam Denounces Terrorism" points out the harm that was done to Traditional Islam by the meddling influence of European Colonialism: The result has been examples of extreme religious practice devoid of any real knowledge and characterized by bigotry, intolerance, harshness, and excessiveness-all of which are in opposition to Islam as exemplified by the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, who always advocated the middle way. 21

It can be safely said that the mass importation of the American idea of democracy from an Islamic standpoint to the mass populace of these countries would stifle the negative effects of Islamism that is trying to grasp hold in the Muslim world. The Muslim populations have great respect for American values and traditions but not pop culture or rampant militarism. The values and ideas I talk about are called the "American Intellectual Tradition."  This tradition derives its roots from the Abrahamic religions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. It is the belief that as I had stated earlier in this paper, that we were created in the image of our creator with cognitive abilities such as the powers of reason and creativity. Mr. LaRouche elaborated further about the democratic traditions that has arisen from this most basic principle: "Function of government must be, not to impose religion, but to recognize this as a principle of natural law: that government has no right to exist, except as insofar as it is efficiently committed to promote the general welfare of all people, and their posterity. And to honor the aspirations and achievements of those who have gone before us, who created the foundation upon which we are able to do good. That's the function of government. That's the meaning of the Preamble of the Constitution, which is the fundamental Constitutional law of the United States-the principle of the General Welfare-to promote and defend our sovereignty, and to promote the common good, both for our people, and in our relations among states abroad." 22

Before the advent of Colonialism, there were many noble and just Muslim rulers who embodied the principle of the "American Intellectual Tradition" within the confines of the Islamic faith in every corner of the Muslim world. Among them was Akbar The Great (1543-1605), Suleyman The Magnificent (1494-1566), and Saladin Sultan Of Egypt (1138-1193). During their reigns, the Islamic faith's commitment to justice, compassion, and tolerance was commonplace. It is important to bring light upon their accomplishments because in Euro-centric history, noble Muslim rulers are looked upon as barbaric and bloodthirsty. It was Saladin who repelled the Crusaders who were hell bent on killing every Muslim in sight. They killed 70,000 in total. In fact, the streets of Jerusalem ran red with blood. The Crusaders destroyed Mosques and killed Byzantine Christians and Jews as well. When Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 from the Knights of the Latin Kingdom, he could have easily replicated the carnage that was perpetuated upon the Muslim citizenry. Instead, upon retaking Jerusalem, he allowed the people to keep their churches and synagogues. Examples of Saladin's compassion included dispatching his own personal physician when the General of the Crusader army took ill and being moved to tears when a woman had lost a child and dispatching his own personal envoy to find the missing little one.

The legacy of Suleyman was even more famous then that of Saladin. Suleyman was called the magnificent in the Western world but known as the lawgiver in Islamic society.

In Islamic history, Suleyman is regarded as the perfect Islamic ruler in history. He is asserted as embodying all the necessary characteristics of an Islamic ruler, the most important of which is justice ('adale ). The Qur'an itself points to King Solomon as embodying the perfect monarch because he so perfectly embodied 'adale ; Suleyman, named after Solomon, is regarded in Islamic history as the second Solomon. The reign of Suleyman in Ottoman and Islamic history is generally regarded as the period of greatest justice and harmony in any Islamic state. 23

Under Suleyman, the Ottoman Empire reached its peak in terms of influence and shaping of World History. However, it was his reputation as a lawgiver that he was most known for. In the Ottoman Empire, the Sultan was known as the Supreme Lawgiver. In fact, they had a whole set of laws outside the Shari'a called Kanun. As the Supreme Lawgiver, the Sultan could overturn situations in which he felt it was unjust to the common people. Therefore, it was not uncommon for Suleyman to move amongest his subjects undetected in order to spot situations where they were being mistreated. Just as with Saladin, the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire were allowed to live and practice their faiths unmolested this included whole Jewish and Christian Communities. In fact, after the fall of Andalusia (Spain) in 1492 to the Christian Conquerors Queen Isabelle and King Ferdinand, the Jews escaped to Istanbul because of the Christians' policy of force conversion.

Akbar the Great was the lesser known of the three Sultan rulers. Akbar was also an exact contemporary of Elizabeth I of England but was the ruler of far greater number of people in India than the sparse population of England. The population of the subcontinent of India at the end of the sixteenth century is estimated at 140 million people with most of them living in the territory controlled by Akbar, between the Himalayas and the Deccan plateau. Compare this with the population of five million in England and 40 million in Western Europe. Akbar was indeed a true monarch and India with its enormous manpower quickly became rich again. The benevolent monarch suspended all unjust taxation of non-Muslims. These taxes, called jizya had been collected ever since the Muslim rulers took control of India. Initially the Brahmins and some Buddhists were exempt but later Feroz Shah Tughlaq had made the taxes mandatory for all non-Muslims. Though handicapped with learning disabilities, Akbar appreciated art and music and honored artists, whoever they were. Miniature paintings from his era are considered to be masterpieces and the legendary musician Tansen was his royal singer in his court. Akbar's reign also began an unprecedented
period of political stability in India. A crafty and intelligent minister Birbal is the subject of much folklore. 24

During his reign, "Akbar never discriminated between Muslim and Hindus and conferred nobility to many, with equal justice in mind." 24

As you can see the tolerance in Islam as practiced and carried by these early Muslim leaders is unheralded in human history. Compare this to the acts of barbarity, betrayal, murder, pillaging, force conversion, and enslavement as practiced by the early church before the Protestant Reformation. The early years of Christendom are filled with atrocities committed against Muslims, Jews, and other Christians who were considered heretics. On January 2, 1492 the Muslim Kingdom of Granada fell to the Kings of Castile, Ferdinand & Isabella. Under the agreement that transpired between the kings of Castile and Granada's deposed ruler (Muhammed XII Abu' Abd Allah (he was guaranteed safe passage by secretly handling over the city), the Moors were guaranteed to worship and practice their religion. However, by 1500 the rulers along with Cardinal Ximenes mandated that Muslims either convert to Catholicism or driven out of Spain. Hence started the bloody reign of the Spanish Inquisition, as we know it. Thousands of Muslims were either forced converted or massacred on the streets. Every vestige of Moorish culture was either destroyed or subverted. Mosques were converted to churches. Books were burned. The Jewish inhabitants faced the same consequences as their Moorish counterparts. Such ceased to be the pageantry of Andalusia. It was indeed a graphic example of both treachery and barbarism that the world had never known at that time. It is estimated that upwards to 32 million people lost their lives in the Inquisition.

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  1. "Graham's, Anti-Islamic Comments Sparks Controversy." Hate In The News. 2002-MAR-21. See:
  2. "Southern Baptists Pray For Muslims To Join Only True Religion." Hate In
    The News. 2002-MAR-21. See:
  3. Ibid.
  4. "Tennessee Pastor Gives Lesson In Religious Intolerance." Hate In The News. 21 March 2002. See:
  5. "Mr. Robertson's Incitement." 2002-FEB-25, at:
  6. "Southern Baptist Convention Creates Furor Over Islam Comments...," CNN Crossfire. 2002-JUN-14. Cable News Network. See:
  7. Ibid.
  8. "Project Megiddo," Department Of Justice: Federal Bureau of Investigations. Pages 30-31.
  9. Lyndon LaRouche, LaRouche's History-Making Statement Of May 1. Leesburg:
    Virginia. 2002. Page 6.
  10. Ibid, Page 8.
  11. "The Truth About Islam." The Wisdom Fund. 2002-SEP-2, at:
  12. "Islam Explained." ICNA Project. 2002-SEP-2, at: You need software to read these files. It can be obtained free from:
  13. Op cit, Lyndon LaRouche, Page 6.
  14. Nasar, Seyyed Hussein. "Al-Serat: Islam And The Question Of Violence." Vol. XIII, No.2. 23 March 2002. See:
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Meaning Of The Holy Qur'an," Ed. Beltsville, Maryland. 1997. (Surah 5:32). Page 257.
  17. Pickthall, Muhammad Marmaduke. "Tolerance In Islam." An abridged version of the 1927 Lecture. Ed. Dr. A. Zahoor. 2002-MAR-23, at:
  18. Yahya, Harun. "Islam Denounces Terrorism." Translated by Carl Rossini and
    Ron Evans. Ed. Aftab A. Malik. Bristol, England. (2002), Page 69. See:
  19. "Universal Islamic Declaration Of Human Rights." Islamic Council. 2002-MAR-23.
  20. Ibíd.
  21. Op Cit, Yahya, Harun, Page 13.
  22. Lyndon LaRouche, LaRouche's History Making Statement Of May 1. Page 6.
  23. Hooker, Richard. "The Ottomans: Suleyman. " 2002-AUG-28.  http://www.file://E/The Ottomans%S.
  24. Hebbar, Neria Harrish, MD. "A True Monarch: Akbar The Great." History Of
    Islam In India. 2002-AUG-28, at:

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Copyright © 2002 by Richard Dixon
Latest update: 2005-NOV-05
Author: Richard Dixon

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