There is a widespread belief among post-Christians, liberal Christians, some
mainline Christians, and secularists that the authors of the Gospels of Matthew and
Were not named "Matthew" and "Luke."
Were not eye witnesses to Jesus' ministry in Palestine.
Relied on a growing oral tradition of the early Christian movements concerning Jesus' teachings.
Copied much of their material from at least one pre-existing document.
The German researchers who pioneered in this work called this lost document "Quelle"
which means "source". This is usually abbreviated as "Q" as in the "Gospel of Q."
The Gospel of Q remains a hypothetical document. No intact copy has ever been
found. No reference to the document in early Christian writings has survived.
Its existence is inferred from an analysis of the text of Matthew and Luke.
of the content of Matthew and Luke were derived from the Gospel of Mark. But
there were also many passages which appear to have come from Q.
Many theologians and religious historians believe that Q's text can be
reconstructed by analyzing passages that Matthew and Luke have in common.
If the Gospel of Q exists, it might best be regarded as a reconstructed Gospel. Many believe that it was written much
earlier than the four canonical gospels in the Christian Scriptures (New Testament -- in chronological order: Mark, Matthew, Luke and John. It may have been the first of the 40
or so Gospels that were written and used by the early Christian movements.
The Gospel of Q is different from the four canonical gospels in that it does not extensively describe events in the life of Jesus. Rather, it is largely a
collection of sayings -- similar to the Gospel of Thomas. Q does not mention events like Jesus'
virginbirth, his selection of 12 disciples, his crucifixion, resurrection,
ascension to heaven, etc. It represents those parts of Jesus' teachings that his followers remembered and recorded, starting about 20 years after his death.
"He is presented as "a charismatic teacher, a healer, a simple man filled with the spirit of God. Jesus is also a sage, the personification
of Wisdom, cast in the tradition of King Solomon."1
If the Gospel of Q did exist, then it is extremely important to religious liberals. It may contain the earliest
descriptions of beliefs, behaviors, expectations, and developing theology of one group of Jesus' followers. Many liberals are convinced that the canonical Gospels contain
extensive material that is not historical, including descriptions of non-existent events in Jesus' life, words that he did not say,
teachings that he did not make, and actions that he did not take.
Having access to a document written decades before the canonical gospels may allow liberal theologians to separate what they regard as fact from fiction
in the Christian Scripture's descriptions of the life of Jesus.
To most religious conservatives, the Gospel of Q is a non-issue. As Eta Linnemann comments, it doesn't exist and:
"...is nothing but
fantasy....Such totally subjective arrangements, depending on dubious suggestions about the historical background, amount to novelistic trifling with
early Christian origins." 2
To those who believe that God inspired the authors of the Bible to write
error-free text, it matters not one iota whether some of the Gospel content was derived from an earlier document. The
Holy Spirit has guaranteed that the books chosen to be in Bible are all inerrant -- at least in their autograph copies: the copies hand-written by their authors.