Reparative & other therapy to alter sexual orientation
Introduction, Part 1:
Quotations, Overview, & Terminology
Dr. Robert Spitzer: "They have a choice whether to go into therapy, about
whether they adopt a gay lifestyle, whether they tell their friends and their
family. They don't have a choice as to whether their basic sexual orientation
is gay or straight -- that they don't have a choice about." Dr.
Spitzer's response to a question posed Scientific American Mind magazine
in 2006: "Do gays have a choice?" 4 [We assume
that to "adopt a gay lifestyle" means making the choice of
being celibate or sexually active]
||"There is no published scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of
'reparative therapy' as a treatment to change one's sexual orientation".
American Psychiatric Association's 1997 Fact Sheet on Homosexual and Bisexual Issues.
Sad to say, this deplorable situation remains in 2010.
"Exodus upholds redemption for the homosexual person as the
process whereby sin's power is broken, and the individual is freed to
know and experience true identity as discovered in Christ and His
Church. That process entails the freedom to grow into heterosexuality"
Exodus International's statement of belief.
"Relationship with Jesus Christ and a life of prayer are the
keys to changing homosexual desires and fostering the development of
healthy, nonsexual intimate relationships."
Martha Kleder, Focus on the Family.
"There is no documentary evidence showing someone's sexual
preference can be changed by therapy. There is only anecdotal evidence, mostly
from the therapists themselves, claiming that what they do works. That's not
very scientific. On the other hand, there's no scientific evidence to show
that this is impossible...It hasn't been studied." Dr. Robert
Spitzer, professor of psychiatry at Columbia University. In 2001, after he
made this statement, he reported on a study that he had made. It
indicated that reparative therapy has as a
very high failure rate.
The term "reparative therapy" (a.k.a. "sexual orientation
change efforts," SOCE, "conversion
therapy," "reorientation therapy," and "RT") has multiple
||Some define it as a specific secular counseling technique. It typically
involves helping a gay or lesbian bond in a close, intimate but
non-sexual relationship with an adult member of the same gender. This
is supposed to substitute for the bond between the client and their
same-sex parent which therapists allege did not properly form during
Others define the term reparative therapy more inclusively
to include any formal attempt to
change a person's sexual orientation -- typically from homosexual to
heterosexual. It thus includes attempts by conservative Christian transformational
ministries to use prayer, religious conversion, one-on-one
and group counseling, etc. to change a person's sexual
Joseph Nicolosi of the National Association for Research and Therapy of
Homosexuality (NARTH) describes has specialized in SOCE for almost three
decades. Reporter Melissa Lafsky writes of Dr. Nicolosi's SOCE technique:
" 'If [a patient] can accept his bodily homoerotic experience while staying
connected to the therapist,' he wrote in 'The Paradox of Self-Acceptance,'
1 'the sexual feeling soon
transforms into something else: the recognition of deeper, pain-generated
emotional needs which have nothing to do with sexuality'."
"He cites the following case: A 43-year-old married accountant was
recalling another man that he had seen at the airport while on a business
trip. 'This had awakened his sexual fantasies and dreams. I asked him to hold
onto that image and observe his bodily sensations while staying connected to
me. As he did, he felt an intense sexual longing. But as he followed that
fantasy through an imaginary sexual scenario, quite unexpectedly, he then
experienced an embodied shift to sadness, longing, and emptiness. In tears, he
spoke of his sense of deep unworthiness. 'I would just love him to be my
friend! He's the kind of guy that I always wanted to be close to. How much I
just want to be friends with a guy like him'."
A person's "sexual orientation" is normally defined by the gender of
those to whom the person is sexually attracted; homosexuals are attracted only
to members of the same sex; bisexuals are attracted to both men and women, but
not necessarily to an equal degree. However, promoters of these therapies
often define "sexual orientation" in terms of sexual behavior.
The effectiveness of these therapies has yet
to be properly evaluated. They may be found to be helpful; they may turn out to be
useless; they may be eventually recognized as ineffective and potentially
harmful. Many information sources do agree that:
||No research into the effectiveness and safety of reparative therapy
has ever been published in a peer-reviewed journal.
||No accurate, longitudinal survey
has been conducted to track the outcome of clients who have completed
Although there have been a few studies, all have serious deficiencies.
A 2001 study by Dr. Robert Spitzer, of Columbia University is the closest to a
meaningful study of these therapies. It is grossly inadequate because it relied
on telephone interviews with study subjects, and involved a small
pre-selected group, multiply filtered, taken from a very large group of reparative
therapy patients. Some anecdotal evidence is available -- both negative
and positive. Some clients who end therapy without having been able to
change their sexual orientation become depressed; some experience suicidal
ideation. Others whose orientation remain unchanged are pleased because they
feel that they have tried every technique to change their orientation without
success and so accept that it is unchangeable.
who engage in these therapies are exposing their clients to an unproven, experimental treatment.
Clients should realize that little is known about the potential benefits
or dangers of these therapies. Dr. Jack Drescher, a medical doctor who
works extensively with homosexuals stated: "It
is not clear...if reparative therapists ever provide informed consent to
explain these substantial risks to the patients they treat, or even if they are
fully aware of the costs to the unrepaired." 3
Many recent, experimental forms of therapy have proven disastrous to
the quality of life of the client-victims. Recovered
memory therapy was one; another is multiple
personality disorder therapy (a.k.a. dissociative identity disorder).
Both triggered many suicides and caused a great deal of pain, at both the
personal and family level. Therapies which attempt to change sexual
orientation may be similarly dangerous. Nobody knows, because no peer-reviewed
study has ever been reported.
There are two "solitudes" within society dealing with homosexual issues:
||Many conservative religious individuals, therapists, ministries, and
groups believe that homosexual behavior is abnormal, unnatural, chosen
and sinful. They promote these therapies as helpful and safe techniques to
||Essentially all gays, lesbians, mental health professionals, human
sexuality researchers and religious
liberals accept that a homosexual orientation is normal and natural
for a minority of people. They believe that sexual orientation cannot be changed. They
generally believe that both heterosexual and homosexual behavior can
be either sinful or not, depending upon the circumstances. They regard
these therapies to be non-productive and potentially
Each of these groups assigns different meanings to common English words and phrases.
This is not unique. The same phenomenon occurs in the field of abortion,
corporal punishment and other areas of social
debate. It makes dialog and communication very difficult.
|Common conservative Christian usage
||Common usage by other groups
|Homosexuality is a behavior.
||Homosexuality is an orientation
|Homosexuality is what one does.
||Homosexuality is what one is.
"I am cured of homosexuality" OR
"I am an ex-gay."
"I was a sexually active homosexual; I am now homosexual
who has chosen to be celibate."
"I was once in the homosexual lifestyle, but I am a heterosexual
"I was a bisexual who engaged in same-sex relationships.
My orientation is still bisexual, but, I now choose to have only relationships with
the opposite gender."
|A person involved in the homosexual lifestyle
||A person with a bisexual or homosexual orientation who
is sexually active with members of the same gender.
Related essays on this web site:
The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above
essay. The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today.
Joseph Nicolosi, "The Paradox Of Self-Acceptance," NARTH, 2009-JUL-24,
Melissa Lafsky, "Is It Possible to Systematically Turn Gay People
Straight? A century of treatments have ranged from horrifying to horribly
unscientific," Discover Magazine, 2009-SEP-09, at:
"Homosexuality," Letters to the Editor, Psychiatric News, 1998-APR-17, at:
David Roberts, "Previously unreleased Spitzer video gives candid results,"
Ex-gay Watch, 2007-APR-05, at:
Copyright © 1996 to 2009 by Ontario Consultants on
Latest update: 2009-DEC-07
Author: B.A. Robinson