Clement of Rome, (circa 30-96 CE) in the late 1st century CE, wrote: "The holy Scriptures which
are given through the Holy Spirit...nothing iniquitous or falsified is written."
St. Augustine (354-430 CE) said: "None of these [canonical] authors has erred in
any respect of writing." He also wrote: "Therefore, since
they wrote the things which He [God] showed and uttered to them, it cannot
be pretended that He is not the writer; for his members executed what their
St. Gregory the Great (circa 540-604 CE; served as pope from 590-604 CE)
stated: "...we loyally believe the Holy Spirit to be the author of
the book. He wrote it who dictated it for writing; He wrote it who
inspired its execution."
The Westminster Confession (1647 CE) included a reference to the Bible's "infallible
Other writings referring to infallibility or inerrancy originated
The Belgic Confessional (1561 CE).
Council of Florence (1438-1445).
Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Council of the Vatican (1869-1870).
Leo XIII in his Encyclical Letter "Providentissimus Deus" (1893).
A book by George A. Marsden, "Reforming Fundamentalism" quotes a
survey of student belief at one of the largest evangelical seminaries in the US. 2The poll indicated that 85% of the students "do not believe in the
inerrancy of Scripture."
This book also lists the results of a poll conducted by Jeffery Hadden in 1987 of
10,000 American clergy. 3 They were asked whether they
believed that the Scriptures are the inspired and inerrant Word of God in faith, history,
and secular matters:
95% of Episcopalians,
87% of Methodists,
82% of Presbyterians,
77% of American Lutherans, and
67% of American Baptists said "No."
However, the Christian laity is far more supportive of the inerrancy position. The Barna
Research Group reported in 1996 that among American adults generally:
58% believe that the Bible is "totally accurate in all its teachings"
45% believe that the Bible is "absolutely accurate and everything in it can be
taken literally." 4
Support dropped between that poll and
another taken in 2001. Barna reported in 2001 that:
41% of adults strongly
agrees that the Bible is totally accurate in all that it teaches
They also published beliefs by denomination and metagroup:
Gospelcom.net has a zip file "Countering contradictions
- 143 contradictions answered," that can be downloaded
Sites analyzing a major book that promotes inerrancy: A
number of researchers have critiqued Josh McDowell's book "Evidence
That Demands a Verdict." The book is an attempt to prove biblical
inerrancy, and has been widely distributed.