As viewed by fundamentalist
& other evangelical Protestants
"Inspiration" and "inerrancy" are closely linked Christian beliefs:
Inspiration means that God inspired the
authors of the Bible so that they wrote text that were free of error.
Inerrancy generally means that biblical
books were free of error in their original autograph copies -- the copies that
the authors or authors' scribes themselves wrote down. This allows for errors to creep into
subsequent copies of the original documents, whether by copyist error or the
insertion of forged text.
The concept of inerrancy is one belief that dramatically demonstrates
differences among various wings of Christianity:
Fundamentalist denominations, such as the Southern Baptist
Convention, and other very conservative evangelical Protestant denominations
generally teach a strict view on the inerrancy of the Bible. It is a belief
that is tied with their understanding that God directly inspired its authors.
The writers largely played the role of a secretary taking dictation.
At the liberal end of the evangelical spectrum, inerrancy is interpreted
less strictly. Their theologians deviate from the literal interpretation of
the Bible in more cases. Biblical authors are seen as writing with their own
style and content. Theologians have suggested that Biblical infallibility need not be total. It is
of prime importance on matters relating to the deity of Christ and an individual's route
to salvation. Historical, geographical and scientific details are of
Errors creeping into those areas could be admitted with little or no impact on the overall
Christian message. Needless to say, this approach generates a lot of opposition
with more conservative evangelicals.
At the other extreme, most progressive Protestants have rejected the concept
of inerrancy. They generally analyze the Bible as a historical document. Their authors' purpose was to promote their own beliefs and those of
their faith group. The writers incorporated stories from nearby Pagan
cultures, legends, myths, scientific errors, religious propaganda, and even
material which was clearly against the will of God
into their writing. Examples of the latter, in the area of
women's rights alone, include stoning non-virgin
brides to death, forcing widows to marry their husband's brother, forcing
women to marry their rapists, burning alive some prostitutes, and requiring
women suspected of adultery to endure a ritual in the Temple which, it was believed,
would result in her death if she was guilty, and the death of her embryo or
fetus is she was pregnant.
Individual mainline Protestant Christians tend to take either a liberal
or conservative stance on inerrancy. This is currently
generating a major divisions and massive conflict
within their denominations over church policies such as: the ordination of
homosexuals in committed relationships, and rituals which recognize
relationships. There are also theological divisions over inerrancy itself,
whether trusting Jesus Christ is the only way to
Future schisms between liberal and conservative wings within
leading mainline denominations are quite possible. They occurred in the 19th
century over the morality of human slavery, and
came close to happening during the 20th century over
female ordination. A schism is currently underway within the worldwide
Anglican Communion over homosexuality.
In contrast, the largest conservative Christian denomination -- the Roman Catholic Church
-- had traditionally taught
a belief in strict inerrancy of the Bible.
However, this has recently been changed to include
only passages related to faith, morals and salvation.
Conservative Protestant theologians regard biblical inspiration and
inerrancy as among the most
important of Christian doctrines. The terms inerrancy, authoritative, infallible and inspired are
closely linked. If the scriptures are to be considered authoritative, then they must be
inerrant and infallible. And the only way to assure these factors would be to have the
writings inspired and controlled by God - because only an all-knowing God can be
totally free of errors.
Unaided, humans are certain to have made mistakes.
Some indications of their belief in inspiration and inerrancy:
At a Niagara Bible Conference in 1895, attendees prepared a list of 5
fundamental beliefs that could be used to evaluate the orthodoxy of a Christian speaker. A
1909 publication "The Fundamentals" repeated these same beliefs. The
first, and presumably most important, was the inerrancy of the Bible.
The Lausanne Covenant of 1974 is a statement of faith agreed to
by many Evangelical Christian groups from over 150 nations. Its Section 2
is titled "The Authority And Power Of the Bible." It states, in
part: "We affirm the divine inspiration, truthfulness and authority of
both Old and New Testament Scriptures in their entirety as the only
written word of God, without error in all that it affirms, and the only
infallible rule of faith and practice." 1
Although the Manila Manifesto of 1989 did not refer to biblical
inerrancy, it confirmed the participants' commitment to the Lausanne
A 1999 document on the Bible written by an ecumenical group of sixteen
Roman Catholic and
Southern Baptist theologians stated in part:
"For Southern Baptists,
inerrancy means that the original biblical text was composed precisely
as God inspired it and intended it to be because of God's
superintendence: not just the thought comes from God, but every word
with every inflection, every verse and line, and every tense of the
verb, every number of the noun, and every little particle are regarded
as coming from God. Scripture is 'God-breathed,' and God does not
breathe falsehood, so the text is faithful and true in all it affirms,
including the miracle accounts, the attributed authors, and the
historical narratives. The 1978 and 1982 Chicago statements on biblical
inerrancy are representative of this doctrine." 3
Many conservative Protestants take an all-or-nothing approach to inerrancy. The implication is that if the Bible can be shown to contain some
errors, then all passages become suspect, and unreliable.:
Warren Doud wrote: "The whole of Scripture and all of its
parts, down to the very words of the original, were given by divine inspiration...The
written word in its entirety is revelation given by God...Confession of the full
authority, infallibility, and inerrancy of Scripture is vital to a sound understanding of
whole of Christian faith." 4
J. I. Packer wrote: "Only truth can be authoritative; only an
inerrant Bible can be used... in the way that God means Scripture to be used."5
Dave Miller wrote: "If the Bible is a mixture
of truth and error, then it is like any other book and simply not deserving of
any special attention." 6
Conservative theologians recognize that many Christians and skeptics point out what appear to be errors and
inconsistencies in the Biblical text. However, they believe that no conflicts truly exist.
They believe that the critics are themselves committing errors in their analysis, such as:
Assuming that unexplained conflicts can never be explained.
Assuming that the Bible contains errors, unless it is proven accurate.
Confusing human interpretations of passages with God's true revelation.
Taking the passage out of its context.
Ignoring similar clear passages when interpreting difficult ones.
Assuming that a partial description of an event is a false description.
Requiring New Testament authors to cite the Old Testament without error.
Assuming that God approves all events in the Bible.
Not realizing that the Bible uses ordinary, non-technical language.
Interpreting rounded-off numbers as false data.
Ignoring the effects of subsequent copying errors. 7
Many religious conservatives believe that the Bible cannot be understood by the
"natural" person. The only people who can truly grasp biblical
teachings are those
who have first been saved -- that is, they have repented of their sins and
trusted Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. (Some conservatives believe that
salvation is purely a product of an individual's beliefs and God's grace. Thus,
they have dropped the
requirement for repentance since it is a "good work" performed by the individual.)
Some fundamentalist and other evangelical Christians consider a particular
English translation of the Bible to be inerrant. This is particularly true among
the King James Only Movement. A few in that movement believe that the
King James Version (KJV) itself is inerrant. Where it can be shown to
have translated the ancient Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek manuscripts incorrectly,
they believe that the KJV is correct and the manuscripts are wrong! In essence,
they believe that God inspired the translators to work without error, and to
correct any errors in the originals.
However, most conservatives believe that inerrancy only applies to the
original, autograph copies of the various books of the Bible. None of the latter
have survived to the present day. We only have access to a variety of
manuscripts which are copies of copies of copies.....
An unknown number of errors are induced due to:
Accidental copying errors by ancient scribes.
intentional changes and insertions into the text, made in order to match developing theology.
The incorporation of notes in the columns of the manuscripts into the text itself.
Sometimes, scribes inserted interpretations beside the text. Later copyists then
incorporated these notes into what they believed to be the actual text.
Accidental translation errors by modern translators.
Intentional bias by translators in order to make the material agree with
theological thought of their sponsors. Essentially all English translations of
the Bible have been funded by religious groups with very specific beliefs.
Sometimes, translators are faced with obscure original texts whose meaning is not
clear. They often convert these passages into English without footnotes, even though they
cannot be certain that they are accurate.
Usually, the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, is considered by
conservative Christians to be responsible for inspiring the Bible's authors to
write inerrant text.
Religious conservatives generally believethat Moses wrote all of the
Pentateuch, the first 5 books of the Bible. Jesus is quoted as believing this to be true
(See Mark 10:3, Luke 24:27, and
Other conservatives believe that he wrote all of the Pentateuch except for Deuteronomy 34,
which deals with Moses' own death and burial. Moses is believed to have written the books
after the Israelite's exodus from Egypt, but before they entered Canaan. This would date
the writing to the 40 year period when the Israelites were wandering through the desert,
circa 1450 BCE. There are about two dozen verses in the Hebrew Scriptures and one dozen in
the Christian Scriptures which state that Moses was the author.
Some conservative Christians believe that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
were written by apostles with those names. When the fundamentalist faction
within the Southern Baptist Convention wrested control from the more
moderate members, they
required its employees to sign a loyalty oath which commits them to this belief. They also
believe that all of the books of the Christian Scriptures which state that they were
written by St. Paul were actually written by him. Other Christians accept that
only some epistles were written by Paul; others were written up to 80 years
after Paul's execution.
Tony Masinelli, Ed., "Misconception: 'The Bible is Full of Errors""
http://witnessbox.com/ "The truth and salvific purpose of sacred scripture according to
Dei Verbum, Article 11" Living Tradition #59, 1995-JUL, at: http://www.rtforum.org/