Three other topics are covered in the previous essay.
This essay contains public opinion poll results on:
6. How U.S. adults describe themselves:
A 2017 study by the Barna Group at the turn of the century found that adults described themselves
A Religious Landscape Study by Pew Research in 2017 showed that among U.S. adults:
7. Biblical world views:
A wordview is a personal perspective on humanity, deity and the rest of the universe which is often based on a person's religious, spiritual and philosophical beliefs. A biblical worldview is a worldview based on a specific interpretation of the Bible. There are many biblical worldviews, reflecting various conservative, mainline, liberal, Gnostic, post-Christian and other belief systems.
The Barna Group defines a conservative Protestant biblical worldview as including eight beliefs:
In 2005-AUG, Barna found that only 8% of adult American Protestants, 5% of adults generally and fewer than 0.5% of Roman Catholics "have a [conservative Protestant] biblical world view." 2
8. Gender differences:
A telephone poll was conducted by the Barna Group during 1999 and the first two months of 2000 among 4,755 adults over the age of 18 who reside in the 48 contiguous U.S. states. The sampling error is within 2%. They show major gender-related differences in some matters of belief. 6 Some of their findings were:
** The Barna Group has a very restricted definition of who is an evangelical. Only about "... one out of every five self-proclaimed evangelicals (19%) meets the Barna Group’s nine-point definition." 3
The Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project surveyed randomly selected people during 2007 in 47 countries. They asked them whether one "Must Believe in God to be Moral?" 4 The surveys were updated in 2014. 5 The answers varied enormously around the world. Many faith groups within Christianianity and Islam teach that God sends immoral persons to the torture chambers of Hell permanently after death. So it may well appear reasonable to many people in countries where these religions predominate that if a person does not believe in God, they will have no motiation to be moral. The survey, as updated in 2014, found that in predominately Muslim countries in the Middle East and Asia believe that Agnostics and Atheists cannot be moral. Examples are Egypt (95%), Indonesia (99%), Jordan (94%), and Senegal 84%).
In North America, which is largely Christian, 53% adults in the U.S. and 31% in Canada agree that belief in God is necessary. On the other hand, some largely secular countries say that belief in God is not neccesary for a person to be moral. Examples are France (85%), Spain (80%), Czech Rep. (78%) and Australia (76%). So do 72% in China and 55% in Japan.
We know of only one attempt to measure the morality of Atheists. That was a study of the percentage of Atheist and Christians inmates in U.S. federal prisons. The study found that Atheists were under represented compared to the percentage of Atheists in the general population by a factor of 8! Meanwhile, Christians were very slightly over represented among the prison population. This indicates that Atheists tend to exhibit less criminal behavior that believers in God which may also imply a higher level of moral behavior.
References: [Currently being edited]
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