"Children are dying, but no one makes a
move. Houses are demolished, but no one makes a move. Holy places are
desecrated, but no one makes a move.... I am fed up with life in the world of
mortals. Find me a hole near you. For a life of dignity is in those holes."
Poem written by the Saudi Arabian ambassador to London, addressed to a dead
Syrian poet, and published by Al-Hayat, a leading Arabic newspaper.
"Even small children know that Israel is
nothing without America. And here America means F-16, M-16, Apache helicopters,
the tools Israelis use to kill us and destroy our homes." Sheikh Abdul
Majeed Atta. Hamas member.
"When you deny justice to people, which
you have been doing for several decades in Palestine, and they are intelligent,
sensitive people, they are going to find something to do. They might take
shelter in Islam, in fatalism, and some will come to despise you." Air
Commodore Haider, Pakistani Air Force.
"If violence escalates, you bring seeds and water for terrorism. You
kill someone's brother or mother, and you will just get more crazy people."
Jamal al-Adimi, a Yemeni lawyer.
"If violence escalates, you bring seeds and water for terrorism. You
kill someone's brother or mother, and you will just get more crazy people."
Jamal al-Adimi, a Yemeni lawyer. 7
"I think...[that people in the Middle East] hate us because of what
we do, and it seems to contradict who we say we are. The major issue that
our policy seems to contradict our own basic values." Bruce Lawrence,
professor of religion at Duke University.
"Since the Cold War ended, America has talked about promoting
democracy. But we don't do anything about it in repressive regimes in the
Middle East, so you can understand widespread anti-Americanism there."
John Esposito, head of the Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding
at Georgetown University in Washington.
"When Bush says 'crusade', or that he wants bin Laden 'dead or
alive', that is a fatwa (religious edict) without any judicial review. It
denies all the principles that America is supposed to be." François
Burgat, a French social scientist in Yemen.
"We need value consensus between the West and Islam on democracy and
human rights to combat Islamic fundamentalism. We can't do it with bombs and
shooting - that will only exacerbate the problem." Bassam Tibi, a
professor of international relations at Gottingen University in
A key to answering the question "Why do they hate the west?" is to determine who "they"
refers to. This essay will give a brief description of Islam, and cover sources
of friction in the Middle East. It will then contrast two totally different
views of Islam:
First: the attitudes of Muslims within the U.S., almost all of whom are
loyal Americans who love the country's freedom of belief, religion and assembly.
Second: the attitude of Osama Bin Laden and members of his Al
Qaeda (The Base) organization. They see America as the "Great Satan,"
which is corrupting the world and must be destroyed by force.
Muslims in the Middle East are divided. A minority supports the terrorists and
their attacks on the West.
Essentially all of the Islamic governments fear Bin Laden and similar terrorists
as a major destabilizing influence on their own regimes and a major threat to
world peace and security.
Islam is the second largest religion in the world, including about
20% of the world's population. This compares to Christianity's 33%. At their
current rate of growth, Muslims -- followers of Islam -- are expected to outnumber Christians
worldwide, before the year 2020. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR)
estimates that there are about two million Muslims associated with America's
1,209 masjids (a.k.a. mosques -- Islamic houses of worship). 1 Estimates of the total
population of Muslims in the U.S. ranges from "6-7 million" by CAIR
to about 3.7 million by some polling groups.
"Islam," comes from word "salam,"
which means peace. "Muslim"
is an Arabic word that refers to a person who submits themselves to the will of
God. They view the Qur'an as the Word of God, revealed to Muhammad the
Prophet (peace be upon him).
2 Muhammad lived from about 570 to 632 CE.
They worship "Allah." God's name is derived from
an Arabic word which means "the One True God." More details about Islam.
A comparison of Islam and Christianity.
Muslims in North America generally view the local media's use of the phrases "Islamic terrorist"
and "Muslim terrorist" to be an oxymoron.
The question is often raised whether the terrorists can be considered followers
of Islam. Opinion is divided:
Some say that the terrorists' beliefs and behaviors are so far divorced from the
religion of Islam that they are no longer Muslim. Islam forbids the kidnapping of
prisoners; it even forbids the killing of unarmed soldiers, let alone innocent
Other point out that the terrorists rigorously follow the five pillars of Islam: recitation
of the shahadah (creed), performing salat (prayer), fasting during the lunar
month of Ramadan, making a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, and -- for middle and
upper class members, the zakat (gift to charity). They believe in Allah, the
inerrancy of the Qur'an, Hell, and Paradise. They avoid eating pork and the
consuming of alcohol. Thus they are Muslims, even though they represent the most radical, the most extreme form
of Fundamentalist Islam.
The relationships between the Islamic countries in the Middle
East and the West -- particularly the United States -- are complex and
multi-faceted. Events which happened many centuries ago still influence present-day politics.
of the following factors could easily be expanded into a group of essays; we
have room only to describe their influence in the most general terms:
Past historical perspective:
The West owes a great debt to Islam, because learning flourished
in Muslim countries at a time when the Church in the west severely limited
scientific and other research. "The Arab world used to be the most literate
part of the planet." 11
Balancing that goodwill has been the long history of conflict
between Christian and Islamic countries. Islam once controlled parts of Europe,
including, at its greatest extent, part of Spain and Eastern Europe as far west as
Vienna. The Roman Catholic Church initiated a number of Crusades between the 11th
and 15th centuries CE. These were holy wars in which soldiers of the
church attempted to drive Muslims out of the Holy Land -- Palestine. The atrocities committed by
Christians during the crusades are still a source of anger among many Muslims to
First half of the 20th Century:
Many middle-eastern countries suffered under the colonial rule
of European super-powers. Three examples are:
Following World War I, Britain sub-divided the
old Ottoman province of Syria, and created the Kingdom of
Jordan. They installed the Hashemite ruling family in power.
France carved Lebanon out of Syria as an attempt
to assure that a majority Maronite Christian state would control
much of the formerly Syrian coastline. This was a recipe for
disaster as the country's minority Muslim population gradually
Britain imposed a Hashemite monarchy on Iraq and
gave the Sunni Muslim minority population control of the
At the time, there was an immense reservoir of good-will towards the U.S.
because America was not one of the colonial powers oppressing Muslims.
America built up more good-will by contributing to education
through the establishment of American Universities in Egypt, Lebanon, and
elsewhere in the Middle East.
The creation of the state of Israel in 1948 sent shock waves
throughout the Muslim world which continue today. It is commonly referred to as
Second half of the 20th Century:
Relations between Islamic countries and the U.S. were profoundly
affected by the west's cold war on communism. U.S. foreign policy promoted the
creation and training of terrorist, gorilla, and military units. Usama Bin
Laden's group was originally trained by the CIA.
The U.S. fought the growth of a pan-Arab nationalism in the region.
Rather than supporting it as a cohesive force -- a source of stability --
throughout the Middle East, the U.S. encouraged divisions among Islamic states.
Some believe that the U.S. government supported Fundamentalist religious movements as an
to fragment the Arab world.
Petro-dollars brought enormous wealth to many Muslim countries.
Unfortunately, only Turkey out of the 50 or so Islamic countries involved are democracies. The leaders are
generally autocratic, unelected, and not particularly accountable to public opinion. Their governments
see no need to be responsive to the needs of their people. Civil liberties are
Political commentator Gynne Dyer writes: "The
West created the modern Middle East, from its rotten regimes down to
its ridiculous borders, and it did so with contemptuous disregard
for the wishes of the local people. It is indeed a problem that most
Arab governments are corrupt autocracies that breed hatred and
despair in their own people, which then fuels terrorism against the
West, but it was the West that created the problem -- and invading
Iraq won't solve it. If the U.S. really wants to foster Arab
democracy, it might try making all that aid to Egypt conditional on
prompt democratic reforms. But I wouldn't hold my breath." 11
Millions of Palestinian refugees have been created as a result
of the 1948 and 1967 wars in Palestine. Yet Muslim states have not accepted many into their
countries; the refugees have been trapped in camps for decades.
"...throughout the Middle East [many] cherish photos,
house keys, and deeds to homes that no longer exist or which have housed
Israelis for generations." 7
Governments in the region tended to invest in major infrastructure
projects, but not in education improvements or activities that would bring
economic opportunities to the people. Currently, "Almost half of
Arabic-speaking women are illiterate." 11
Some of the countries have made moves towards democratization,
and increased participation by the people in government. Turkey remains the only
democracy among the 50 or so predominately Muslim countries. The Muslim world
generally has few political parties, little press freedom, and few ways to
express political dissent.
In many Arab/Muslim countries, the youth suffer immense
frustration, created by high unemployment rates, poverty, lack of education, and lack of hope.
They have little stake in the political system.
They are not allowed to demonstrate against their government. Many deflect anger towards the U.S. - a government that they
are often allowed to demonstrate against.
Some Muslims are angry that the U.S. has not spoken out against
human rights abuses by those Middle Eastern governments that America supports.
John Voll, professor of Islamic history at Georgetown University
commented: "People there [in the Middle East] are convinced citizens in the
United States have freedoms others don't have, [and] that the United States is
also the chief supporter of suppressing democracy." 9
Walter Denny, professor of art history and Middle Eastern studies at the
University of Massachusetts said: "The most important question we should
be asking ourselves is 'Why do you think they hate us so much?' And if you look
at our foreign policy that question is not too difficult to answer." He says
that the key grievance is hypocrisy. The U.S. has repeatedly sided with
authoritarian regimes such as Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Turkey.
These are regimes that grant their citizens few human rights. They have no free
press. Denny concluded: "We [the U.S.] don't trust democracy there. We
believe stability is better than democracy. But it's a false kind of stability."
In recent years, the U.S. was involved in the Gulf War to
liberate Kuwait from Iraqi aggression. They played a major role in ending the
genocide against Muslims in Bosnia and the mass crimes against humanity in
Kosovo. This has resulted in a favorable towards the U.S. among Muslims in
the former Yugoslavia, and among the Saudis and Kuwaitis. But these
feelings never spread to other countries.
Countering this is the great sympathy that many Muslims in the
Middle East have for the Iraqi people who suffered under past U.S. bombing, a
U.S. maintained economic blockade, and a U.S.-led invasion.
Many Muslims object to American culture which has become
all-pervasive throughout the world -- particularly among the young. They see it
as degenerate and immoral.
"Moderate Muslims are loath to criticize or debunk the
fanaticism of the [Islamic] fundamentalists. Like the moderates in Northern
Ireland, they are scared of what would happen to them if they speak their mind."
The Israeli - Palestine problem: There is a
fundamental rule that firefighters use: it is always easier to quench a fire if
the source of fuel is first turned off. In the Middle East, the Israeli - PLO
conflict is fueling much of the anger, instability, unrest, distrust, hostility,
and feelings of victimization in the region. The U.S. is seen as favoring
and supporting Israel. They have given over three billion dollars a year in
military and economic aid to Israel. The lack of a peace settlement, the
continuing expansion of Jewish settlements in occupied lands, the status of the
Dome of the Rock at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem -- the third most sacred spot
in Islam -- and the status of the Muslim section in East Jerusalem are
major flash points.
5 On 2001-SEP-28, the Infatada (uprising) by the Palestinians
against Israel passed its
first yearly anniversary. It has resulted in the deaths "of 647 people on the
Palestinian side, 177 on the Israeli side," and the wounding of many
thousands. 8 "Over the past year, Arab
TV stations have broadcast countless pictures of Israeli soldiers shooting at
Palestinian youths, Israeli tanks plowing into Palestinian homes, Israeli
helicopters rocketing Palestinian streets."7 Rafiq Hariri,
the prime minister of Lebanon commented: "You see this every day, and what do
you feel? It hurts me a lot. But for hundreds of thousands of Arabs and Muslims,
it drives them crazy. They feel humiliated." The ratio of Palestinian
to Israeli deaths has been relatively constant at 3 to 1 ever since.
The 9/11 terrorist attack on New York City and the
Pentagon proved to be a watershed in US - Middle East relations. At the time, Palestinians and Israelis
were involved in a small-scale war
-- the Intifada. The U.S. had imposed sanctions on Pakistan because of their
nuclear bomb activity. Osama Bin Laden had operated freely in Afghanistan. By late 2001-SEP, there
were some promising
signs. Most of the Muslim governments in the world backed the U.S. in a
combined war against terrorism. Under what must have been immense pressure from
the U.S., Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Foreign Minister Simon
Peres reached an temporary agreement. Arafat promised to reduce the level of anti-Israeli
and anti-Jewish rhetoric emanating from Palestinian radio, TV and religious
centers. He has also promised to arrest and disarm terrorists working in PLO
territory. The Israeli government promised to lift the siege of enclaves
ruled by the PLO, withdraw his troops, prevent
attacks on Palestinians, and -- perhaps most important of all -- to freeze
Israeli settlement growth in the occupied area. Unfortunately, these
improvements were short-lived.
The future: Massive problems continue, including:
Jewish settlements in Palestinian areas, Palestinian statehood,
sovereignty over Jerusalem, and control of the Al-Harem Al-Sharif (temple mount). Al
Qaeda, whose influence had been in decline prior to 9-11, has had a new
lease on life. They are experiencing a groundswell of support since the
U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
Across the Middle East, a number of factors will continue to
feed a mood of resentment towards the West in general and the U.S. in
particular: "the injustice done to the Palestinians, the
cruelty of continued sanctions against Iraq.... the repressive and corrupt nature of US-backed Gulf governments."
7A surgical strike might assassinate Ben Laden and his
high command. But as long as these major irritants continue, other terrorists
will rise to take his place. Al
Qaeda is not an organization; it is a philosophy.
Muslims who have emigrated to the U.S. and Canada:
The vast majority generally love their adopted
country. They chose to come here, where they enjoy religious freedom,
democracy, economic opportunity, and other benefits that most did not experience
in their country of origin. Many have become citizens.
After 9/11 they
suffered what they call double anguish:
Grief at the loss of family members, friends, experienced by themselves and
others in the country. There were many dozen or hundreds of innocent Muslims who
worked at the World Trade Towers and were killed there during the attack. They have
families and friends who weep in mourning. They also are saddened at the
pain of the spouses, children, parents, extended family and friends of the
approximately 3,000 people from over 45 countries who did not return home on 9/11.
A feeling of deep hurt because a small minority of Americans consider all Muslims to be
responsible for the actions of about 18 kamikaze hijackers and about 30 of their
support staff. After the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma
the perpetrators were found to be two Christians who were active in a militia
group. But nobody blamed all
Christians for the acts of two hate-filled members of that faith. Muslims wonder why
they are being blamed for the actions of a small number of hate-filled members of their
This is the group headed
by Osama Bin Laden. The New York Times reported that "electronic
eavesdropping intercepts obtained in the hours after the attacks on the World
Trade [Center] and the Pentagon indicated that the terrorist operation was
carried out by...[this] militant Islamic organization."
Bin Laden was born in Saudi Arabia circa 1955. He was trained by the CIA and
actively fought the Soviets in Afghanistan. He inherited a massive fortune which
he has used to fund his terrorist activities. While in Afghanistan, he
encouraged thousands of fighters from Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey and other countries
to join his struggle. After the Soviets abandoned the war and withdrew from
Afghanistan, many of these foreign fighters returned to their countries of
origin to destabilize their local regimes. In 1991, during the buildup to the
Gulf War, Bin Laden was enraged by the presence in Saudi-Arabia of infidels --
non-Muslims from the West. That country includes two of the three most holy
places in Islam: Mecca and Medina. Bin Laden considers the presence of non-Muslim, American troops to have befouled the land. He sees it as a
violation of prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) edict that the feet of infidels must not
sully the Ka'ba. The Ka'ba (aka Kabe) is the most holy structure in
It is located in Mecca and is
considered to be
the center of the world.
He was expelled from Saudi Arabia in 1991 because of
anti-government agitation, spent five years in Sudan and then returned to
Afghanistan. He has since concentrated his rage against the U.S. He and his
group are generally regarded as having been involved in the 1993 World Trade
Center bombing; the 1996 killing of 19 U.S. soldiers in Saudi; bombings of U.S.
Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; the attack in 2000 on the USS Cole in Yemen; the suicide
bombing of the World Trade Center and Pentagon in 2001, and other terrorist
attacks since. 6
Bin Laden cannot simply be called a Muslim, or a Fundamentalist Muslim. He is a
extreme, radical, Fundamentalist Muslim terrorist. Each of these five terms is
important. Some of his beliefs and
He believes that the world is divided into two: the House of Islam, and
the House of War. He views the House of Islam as being permanently at war with the
He believes that he has a divine right from God to impose his will on others.
Whereas almost all Muslims believe that there must be no compulsion in choosing
Islam, Bin Laden believes that the West must accept Islam, by force if
He has called for a holy war against the U.S.
He has called on all Muslims to kill any Americans and Jews that they can.
He is not troubled by "collateral damage" for example of those Muslims who were killed in
his terrorist attack in New York City. His reasoning is that some of those killed were good
Muslims. Because they died during a holy war, they would be given special
treatment in Paradise. Those who were non-observant Muslims would simply be
hastened to Hell where they belong.
Based on an ABC interview on 2001-SEP-12 hosted by Peter Jennings, and including
Haran Ashrawi, representing the PLO; Hisham Melhem, a reporter from Beirut
Lebenon; David Makovsky, from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy; and
Judith Kipper, an ABC Middle Eastern consultant.